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Physics and Astronomy Demonstrations

Thermodynamics



Thermal Properties of Matter


Thermometers

PIRA: 4A10.10

Description: Show the varying types of thermometers and describe what each is used for.

Linear Expansion Apparatus

PIRA: 4A30.05

Aluminum Rod Expansion

PIRA: 4A30.06

Bimetal Strip

PIRA: 4A30.10

Description: A strip with two metals of different thermal expansion coefficients. When it is heated the strip bends one direction and when it is cooled it bends the opposite direction.

Ball & Ring

PIRA: 4A30.21

Description: Ball & ring. When they are both at the same temperature the ball will just barely fit through the ring. If the ball is heated up it will not fit through the ring or if the hoop is cooled { in liquid nitrogen } the ball will not fit through the ring. There is also a bar and slot that works using the same principle.

Pin Breaker

PIRA: 4A30.31

Description: Heat a rod to break a 1/8" diameter pin by expansion.

Wire Heater

PIRA: 4A30.61

Description: A wire is put under tension by a small spring. The apparatus is viewable on the overhead projector. When the wire is heated by an electrical current, it stretches and the coils of the spring contract.

Lead Bell & Solder Spring

PIRA: 4A40.10

Description: A bell made of lead will ring when cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The coil of solder will perform like a spring when cooled to – 176 degrees C.

Smashing Rose, Rubber Tubing, or Racquet Ball

PIRA: 4A40.30

Description: When these objects are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen, they will shatter like glass.

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Heat and the First Law


Specific Heat Apparatus

PIRA: 4B10.30

Description: Four metal blocks { lead, iron, aluminium, and copper } of the same diameter and mass are heated to the temperature of boiling water in a beaker. The blocks are then placed on a wax block and allowed to melt into the block. The distance that they melt into the block is a measure of their specific heat.

Convection Tube

PIRA: 4B20.10

Description: A rectangular tube filled with water. A small amount of potassium permanganate is added to the water for color. When the tube is heated, the current flow is quite visual.

Melting Parafin (conduction)

PIRA: 4B30.12

Description: Six rods of different metals are attached to a center ring which can be heated with a bunsen burner. Wax squares are placed at the midpoint and the end of each rod when enough heat has reached the squares of wax it melts and falls off. The conduction difference between the metals us quite apparent.

Conduction Plates (damaged)

PIRA: 4B30.13

Light the Candle

PIRA: 4B40.10

Description: Two parabolic mirrors are placed on the table. One has a heating coil at its focal point and the other has a candle and match at the focal point. When the heating coil is on, there is enough radiated heat to light the match and candle.

Infrared Source

PIRA: 4B40.21

Infrared Viewer

PIRA: 4B40.22

Radiometer

PIRA: 4B40.61

Description: When exposed to light { IR is best } , the vanes spin very rapidly due to radiated thermal energy.

Solar Panel

PIRA: 4B50.70

Description: A dowel is put in the chuck of the drill and it will burn a hole in a soft piece of wood.

Landing Light

PIRA: 4B50.71

Description: A dowel is put in the chuck of the drill and it will burn a hole in a soft piece of wood.

Boy Scout Fire Maker

PIRA: 4B60.55

Description: A bow for starting fires " Indian style" . It uses friction to generate heat.

Dowel Drill

PIRA: 4B60.56

Description: A dowel is put in the chuck of the drill and it will burn a hole in a soft piece of wood.

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Change of State


PV diagram model {H2O}

PIRA: 4C10.11

Description: There are two pulse glasses available, one large and one small. When the end with the liquid is placed in the palm of the hand, the liquid is forced into the other end due to vapor pressure.

PV diagram model {CO2}

PIRA: 4C10.12

Description: There are two pulse glasses available, one large and one small. When the end with the liquid is placed in the palm of the hand, the liquid is forced into the other end due to vapor pressure.

Melting Ice

PIRA: 4C20.05

Description: The objective of this demonstration is to introduce critical temperatures.

A small portion of water is frozen with a thermometer in it. The computer is set up to take readings from the thermometer in specified intervals and graph the results. A camera is set up to record the computers graph and display it on the two televisions.

Begin the computer program before turning on the burner under the beaker. Then, turn on the burner. The computer will graph the temperature of the water. The graph will exhibit two flat spots. These are where there is a phase change. These are the critical temperatures.

Heat Solution

PIRA: 4C20.61

Description: Heat is generated if sulfuric acid is dissolved in water.

Cryophorus

PIRA: 4C31.10

Description: A small amount of water is enclosed in an evacuated vessel. The vessel is two bulbs connected by a tube. One bulb has a concave surface to hold a small amount of liquid nitrogen. When the liquid nitrogen is poured into the concave surface, the water in the opposite end of the vessel will begin to freeze.

Drinking Bird

PIRA: 4C31.30

Description: The bird shows that work can be extracted from a low thermal energy pool through evaporation.

Pulse Glass

PIRA: 4C33.50

Description: There are two pulse glasses available, one large and one small. When the end with the liquid is placed in the palm of the hand, the liquid is forced into the other end due to vapor pressure.

Crush the Can

PIRA: 4C33.60

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Kinetic Theory


Crookes’ Radiometer

PIRA: 4D20.10

Basketball

PIRA:

Cenco Kinetic Theory Apparatus

PIRA: 4D30.10

Description: A motor driven device which can be placed on the overhead to show a simulation of molecular motion. It contains many small ball bearings of the same size but it could be filled with ball bearings of different sizes. Temperature change simulation can be achieved by controlling the speed of the motor.

Molecular Motion (Mechanical Universe)

PIRA: 4D30.13

Description: A motor driven device which can be placed on the overhead to show a simulation of molecular motion. It contains many small ball bearings of the same size but it could be filled with ball bearings of different sizes. Temperature change simulation can be achieved by controlling the speed of the motor.

Abosolute Pressure Gauge

PIRA: 4D30.25

Description: The absolute pressure gauge is used to determine the pressure of gas at different known temperatures. The points normally used are: boiling water, room temperature, ice water, and liquid nitrogen. Used to determine absolute zero. An overhead transparency graph of temperature vs. pressure can be used.

Stoekle Tube

PIRA: 4D30.41

Description: A tube with mercury and a solid in it. The solid will jump around on top of the mercury due to molecular collisions of the mercury atorms with the solid.

Diffusion in Air (Smell of Paint Reducer)

PIRA: 4D50.11

Description: A tube with mercury and a solid in it. The solid will jump around on top of the mercury due to molecular collisions of the mercury atorms with the solid.

Diffusion in Liquid (Food Color in Water)

PIRA: 4D50.61

Description: A tube with mercury and a solid in it. The solid will jump around on top of the mercury due to molecular collisions of the mercury atorms with the solid.

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Gas Law


Galileo’s Thermometer

PIRA: 4E10.12

Description: A spherical flask is inverted and connected to a thin tube which is inserted in a beaker of water. The water is colored for easy visibility. When the air in the flask is heated with a torch, it expands and push the fluid down the tube. If heated sufficiently, gas will escape from the bottom of the tube and when the air cools to room temperature, the fluid in the tube will rise above the level of the beaker (this should be done as prep.). When the flask is cooled with a wet towel, the fluid level in the tube will rise.

Balloons in Liquid Nitrogen

PIRA: 4E10.20

Description: Pour liquid nitrogen over an air filled balloon until it collapses and then let it warm up again.

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Entropy and the Second Law


Unmixer

PIRA: 4F10.11

Description: A tall cylinder filled with glycerol. If a small amount of dye can be injected into the glycerol, a crank on the cylinder can be turned and an inner cylinder spins and spreads out the dye { mixes it }. When the crank is turned the opposite direction, the dye is returned to its original position. Thus, the unmixer.

Dust Explosion

PIRA: 4F10.40

Description: An explosion due to organic dust can be caused using lycopodium powder. A lit candle is placed in a can. Then, a spoon of lycopodium powder is placed where it can be dispersed with a puff of air.

Flaming torches

PIRA: 4F20.11

Sterling Engine

PIRA: 4F30.10

Description: There are two Stirling engines. A Leybold which has attachments to draw the PV diagram, but it is difficult to get started. The Essex , whic is a cast body model can be used to demonstrate that the Stirling cycle can be used to do work.

Leybold Engine

PIRA: 4F30.11

Description: There are two Stirling engines. A Leybold which has attachments to draw the PV diagram, but it is difficult to get started. The Essex , whic is a cast body model can be used to demonstrate that the Stirling cycle can be used to do work.

Ice Mobile

PIRA: 4F30.61

Thermoelectric Fan

PIRA: 4F30.62

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