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Physics and Astronomy Demonstrations

 

Oscillations & Waves


Oscillations


 

Simple Pendulum

PIRA: 3A10.10

Description: Suspend a simple pendulum from a ringstand.

 

Simple Pendulum with Sonic Ranger

PIRA: 3A10.11

 

Bowling Ball Pendulum with the Sonic Ranger

PIRA: 3A10.15

Description: The bowling ball can be suspended from the ceiling to create a pendulum. The period of the pendulum can be measured and the length of the pendulum can be calculated.

 

Different Mass Pendulums

PIRA: 3A10.17

Description: Pendula of the same length and different mass oscillate together.

 

Torsion Pendulum

PIRA: 3A10.30

Description: The torsional pendulum can be used to demonstrate that changes in the moment of inertia effect the angular speed of the object. The moment of inertia can be changed by placing masses in various positions on the disk. The torsional pendulum can also be used to discuss Hooke’s law and the torsional elastic constant,

k. Discussions of torsional simple harmonic motion are also applicable.

 

Meter Stick Pendulum

PIRA: 3A15.11

 

Oscillating Bar

PIRA: 3A15.20

Description: A bar is suspended from pivots at 1/6 and 1/4 of its length. A companion simple pendulum is used for comparison.

 

Glass Coils

PIRA: 3A20.05

 

Mass on a Spring

PIRA: 3A20.10

Description: When these springs are used to suspend the same mass, it can be shown that the frequency of oscillation depends on the spring constant of the material.

 

Springs & Masses

PIRA: 3A20.11

Description: When these springs are used to suspend the same mass, it can be shown that the frequency of oscillation depends on the spring constant of the material.

 

Spring & Mass with Sonic Ranger

PIRA: 3A20.12

Description: When these springs are used to suspend the same mass, it can be shown that the frequency of oscillation depends on the spring constant of the material.

 

Air Track Glider and Spring (Sonic Ranger)

PIRA: 3A20.30

Description: An air cart is attached to a single horizontal coil spring.

 

Periodic motion laser disk {B30}

PIRA: 3A40.05

 

Turntable Oscillator and Pendulum

PIRA: 3A40.20

Description: Shadow project a pendulum and turntable which have identical frequencies.

 

Damped spring & Mass with Glycerol

PIRA: 3A50.22

 

Damped Motion with Sonic Ranger

PIRA: 3A50.23

 

Tacoma Narrows (video)

PIRA: 3A60.10

Description: The digitized video is about 9 minutes in length.

 

Driven Glider on Air Track

PIRA: 3A60.20

Description: A cart is placed between two long springs driven by a variable speed motor.

 

Resonance Pendula

PIRA: 3A60.31

Description: Several ping pong balls are suspended at different lengths from a horizontal support string. A pool ball is also suspended. If the pool ball is set into oscillations, the ping pong balls will also swing. The largest amplitude will occur for the ping pong ball suspended at the same length as the pool ball.

 

Resonance Pendula with Brick

PIRA: 3A60.32

Description: Several ping pong balls are suspended at different lengths from a horizontal support string. A pool ball is also suspended. If the pool ball is set into oscillations, the ping pong balls will also swing. The largest amplitude will occur for the ping pong ball suspended at the same length as the pool ball.

 

Resonating Tuning Forks

PIRA: 3A60.52

 

Resonating Water Column

PIRA: 3A60.53

 

Hacksaw Blade Resonator

PIRA: 3A60.54

 

Water Drop Oscillations {Skylab video}

PIRA: 3A95.11

 

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Wave Motion


 

Pulse on a Rope

PIRA: 3B10.10

Description: Give a heavy piece of stretched rope a quick pulse.

 

Pulse on Rubber Tubing

PIRA: 3B10.11

 

Pulse on a Spring

PIRA: 3B10.12

Description: This long spring can be attached to the wall in any of the lecture halls and then stretched nearly the length of the room. It is great for showing pulses as well as standing waves. It does not do longitudinal waves.

 

Pulse on Nylon Cord

PIRA: 3B10.13

 

Slinky on the Table

PIRA: 3B10.20

Description: Create pulses and waves by hand on a slinky stretched down the lecture bench.

 

Bell Labs Wave Model

PIRA: 3B10.30

Description: The bell wave machine is a device constructed of many rods supported from their centers and connected by a cable. Displacement of one rod will propagate to the rest of the rods. Different length rods are available to display different wavelengths. Different boundary conditions can be constructed to show both reflection and transmission. The device is very verstile.

 

Columbia Wave Machine

PIRA: 3B10.41

Description: A wonderful antique device that with the turn of a crank shows the motions associated with water waves, sound waves, and ether waves.

 

Vibrating String

PIRA: 3B22.10

Description: Drive one end of a string over a pulley to a mass with variable frequency SHM.

 

Helium

PIRA: 3B30.50

Description: Sing, talk or laugh while breathing helium.

 

Doppler Football

PIRA: 3B40.12

 

Doppler on Laser Disk

PIRA: 3B40.13

Description: The cinema classics videodisc set has a good chapter on doppler shifts (Side C, chapter 27). The doppler shift for a moving source is observed by a person standing on the side of the tracks as the train passes with its horn blowing (starting frame 14738 or 15073) and also by a person standing on the side of the road as a car passes with its horn blowing (starting frame 14924). The doppler shift for a moving receiver is displayed by traveling with an engineer as he passes the station bells (starting frame 15371).

 

Doppler Ripple Tank Laser Disk {C28}

PIRA: 3B40.14

 

Leslie Speaker Doppler Effect

PIRA: 3B40.16

 

Ripple Tank – Single Slit (Laser Disk D-2)

PIRA: 3B50.10

Description: Diffraction occurs from a plane wave passing through a single slit on the ripple tank.

 

Ripple Tank – Double Source

PIRA: 3B50.20

Description: The plane wave through each slit diffracts, but they also show interference.

 

Ripple Tank – Laser Disk

PIRA: 3B50.31

 

Moire Pattern Transparencies

PIRA: 3B50.40

Description: A double slit representation of Moire patterns from two sheets of semicircular ruled transparencies.

 

Flashlight

PIRA: 3B50.61

 

Speaker Interference (Same Frequency)

PIRA: 3B55.10

 

Speaker Interference (Different Frequency)

PIRA: 3B55.11

 

Beat Tuning Forks

PIRA: 3B60.10

Description: Two identical tuning forks (A = 440 Hz) complete with sound boxes can be used to show resonance and beats. If one fork is struck, the other will vibrate simpathetically. A small clamp (or clay) is available to slightly change the frequency of one of the forks. When the two forks are then struck simultaneously, beats can be heard. In all cases, the sound can be amplified by the sound system in B16.

 

Beats on the Scope

PIRA: 3B60.20

Description: Two audio transformers are fed through an audio interstage transformer to an oscilloscope and audio amplifier.

 

Sound on the Scope

PIRA: 3B60.21

Description: The signal from a variable frequency generator can be fed to a speaker and heard by the class. When the frequency of the generator is changed, the students can perceive the change in pitch of the sound. The sound can then be fed to a microphone attached to the oscilloscope so that the sound can be seen. The amplitude, frequency, and quality can be varied.

 

Sound on the Computer

PIRA: 3B60.22

Description: The signal from a variable frequency generator can be fed to a speaker and heard by the class. When the frequency of the generator is changed, the students can perceive the change in pitch of the sound. The sound can then be fed to a microphone attached to the computer so that the sound can be seen. The amplitude, frequency, and quality can be varied.

 

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Acoustics


 

Bottle Scale (Pop Bottle with Water)

PIRA: 3C20.25

 

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Instruments


 

Violin

PIRA: 3D22.10

Description: Stringed instrument can be played to find the frequency of vibrating strings.

 

Resonating Water Column

PIRA: 3D30.10

Description: Draw a glass tube out of a water bath while holding a tuning fork over one end.

 

Corrugated Tube

PIRA: 3D30.17

Description: An open tube of corrugated plastic is whirled around at some frequency to produce a singing pipe.

 

Bell Jar

PIRA: 3D30.30

 

Sound Source (function generator & speaker)

PIRA: 3D30.41

 

Sound Meter

PIRA: 3D30.50

 

Organ Pipes

PIRA: 3D32.10

Description: Show open and closed pipes of various lengths to give the monotonic scale.

 

Organ

PIRA: 3D32.11

Description:  Video displaying current draw while pipe organ is played. (YouTube Link)

 

Whistle Box

PIRA: 3D32.30

 

Xylophone

PIRA: 3D40.10

Description: Play this instrument to demonstrate the musical scale.

 

Chladni Plates

PIRA: 3D40.30

Description: Strike or bow a horizontal matal plate covered with sand while touching the edge at various nodal points.

 

Drum Head

PIRA: 3D40.40

Description: This instrument demonstrated the standing wave as it is played.

 

Bohr Model (Oscillating Wire)

PIRA: 3D40.41

 

Drum Head on Laser Disk (C-45)

PIRA: 3D40.41

 

Hacksaw Blade Resonator

PIRA: 3D40.42

Description: The same system as the damped oscillator hacksaw blade can be driven with a Pasco Mechanical vibrator (or drill). The scope output will show an increased amplitude at resonance.

 

Wine Glass

PIRA: 3D40.51

Description: Create standing waves in a wineglass filled with water.

 

Shattering Glass (Video Tape)

PIRA: 3D40.56

Description: Using amplified sound, break a glass at the resonant frequency.

 

Assorted Tuning Forks

PIRA: 3D46.10

Description: These are used to hear and display the varying wavelengths and waveforms with the ear and oscilloscope respectively.

 

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