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Physics and Astronomy Demonstrations

Electricity & Magnetism




Electrostatics


Electrostatics Box

PIRA: 5A10.10

Description: Items included in this box are as follows: silk, glass rod, fur, plastic rod, pith balls, resistor, charging plates, packing peanuts in a ziplock bag, and a ping pong ball on a string. We have two boxes described as above. Numerous electrostatic demonstrations can be performed by using this box in conjunction with the Van de Graaff generator.

Electrophorus

PIRA: 5A10.20

Description: Use a metal plate on a handle to transfer charge from a large charged surface.

Suspended Balloons

PIRA: 5A10.31

Description: The balloon can be charged and then used to show attraction to neutral objects.

Scotch Tape & Electroscope

PIRA: 5A10.32

Zerostat

PIRA: 5A10.33

Suspended Glass & amp; Plastic Rods

PIRA: 5A10.38

Suspended Plastic Rods

PIRA: 5A10.39

Description: Fur can be used to place a negative charge on a piece of PVC pipe. If two pieces of PVC are charged alike, the suspended pipe will be repelled by one held in the hand. The fur (+ charge) can be used to attract the suspended pipe. This exercise helps to demonstrate the existence of two types of charge as well as charge transfer.

Coulomb’s Law on the Computer

PIRA: 5A20.01

Rods and Pivot

PIRA: 5A20.10

Description: With one charged rod on a pivot, use another of the same or opposite charge to show attraction or repulsion.

Flying Fur

PIRA: 5A20.11

Pith Balls

PIRA: 5A20.20

Description: Suspend two small pith balls from a common support and show either attraction or repulsion. Charge the two pith balls and they attract or repell.

Coulombs Law with Balloons

PIRA: 5A20.21

Peanut Electroscope

PIRA: 5A20.26

Ringing Bells

PIRA: 5A20.34

Description: Four bells are arranged so their strikers will transfer charge to ground. When the transfer occurs, the strikers hit the bells and thus the "ringing bells".

Faraday Ice Pail

PIRA: 5A20.35

Description: An electric charge is placed on the inner metal mesh, and the outer mesh is connected to the electrometer and to an overhead voltmeter. The charge will run to the outer mesh when they are shorted.

Volta’s Hail Storm

PIRA: 5A20.36

Description: Styrofoam pieces will jump aroun in a jar when the Van de Graaff is connected to an electrode at the top of the hail storm apparatus. The styrofoam is transferring charge from the electrode to ground.

Suspended Ping Pong Ball

PIRA: 5A20.37

Electric Potential with Electrometer

PIRA: 5A20.71

Electroscope Assortment

PIRA: 5A22.11

Description: The projectoscope is an electroscope that is viewable on the overhead projector. The set of rods is used to show the two kinds of charge. The projectoscope can be charged by both conduction and induction. The methods for testing for charge type with a charged electroscope can be shown. There is a toilet float electoscope as well.

Foam Model of Insulators & Conductors

PIRA: 5A30.05

Description: Three models are available for drawing analogies to insulators, semi-conductors, and conductors. The insulator has deep pockets which will hold steel balls (electrons) in place. The semi-conductor has shallow pockets and the conductor has no pockets, so the balls are free to roll around.

Insulators & conductor foam models 8.11

2 " X 4 " Attraction of Neutral Objects

PIRA: 5A40.30

Description: A student placed on the insulating platform can be charged with a Van de Graaf generator. Once charged, the student can attract a neutral object such as the 2×4 balanced on the watchglass. An attractive force at the end of the 2×4 will cause a rotation visible by most of the class. The resistor is used to discharge the student.

Water Deflection Chute

PIRA: 5A40.40

Description: Two metal plates through which a stream of water can flow. By charging one side of the chute the water stream will be deflected in that direction.

Deflection of a Water Stream

PIRA: 5A40.41

Electrostatic Motor

PIRA: 5A50.05

Description: A motor operated by electrostatic charges drawn from an electrostatic generator.

Wimshurst Machine

PIRA: 5A50.10

Description: This machine will generate static electricity.

Van de Graaff Generator

PIRA: 5A50.30

Description: Van de Graaff generators can produce very high voltages.

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Electric Fields & Potential


Hair on End

PIRA: 5B10.10

Description: This occurs when static electricity is induced on a person with the Van de Graaf machine. The person stores charged particles until they are released by touching something that is grounded.

Van de Graaff String Streamers

PIRA: 5B10.15

Description: The Van de Graaff with strings attached can show the direction of the electric field lines emanating from the dome. If a piece of the fur is placed on top of an uncharged Van de Graaf, once charged, the fur will fly off in the direction of the electric field. Styrofoam peanuts will behave similarly.

Grass Seed

PIRA: 5B10.41

Description: The grass seed suspended in oil can be used to show electric field lines around various configuration. The Van de Graaf can be used to supply a potential difference.

Electricity & Magnetism Software

PIRA: 5B10.42

Gauss’ Law Integration Props

PIRA: 5B20.05

Faraday Cage & Tesla Coil

PIRA: 5B20.11

Faraday Cage & Electrometer

PIRA: 5B20.15

Fluorescent Tube

PIRA: 5B30.15

Description: If a fluorescent tube is brought near a charged Van de Graaf, a potential difference across the tube will exist if the tube is held along a radius. The tube will light, showing that potential changes in the direction of the field. If the tube is held "tangent" to the Van de Graaf, no potential will exist between the ends so the tube won’t light.

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Capacitance


Capacitor Assortment

PIRA: 5C10.10

Description: A selection of capacitors can show that the size of the capacitor is not always related to the amount of capacitance.

Parallel Plate Capacitor and Electrometer

PIRA: 5C10.20

Description: Copper screen laid on the table is used as a common ground between the Van de Graaf and either the Leyden jar or the parallel plate capacitor. The discharge bar can be used to charge either capacitor. Once charged, either can be disassembled and reassembled. When reassembled, if discharged, a considerable spark is produced.

Variable Dielectric Capacitor

PIRA: 5C20.11

Description: A charge is placed on a plate of the variable capacitor. The voltage can be viewed by using an electrometer.

Leyden Jar Assortment

PIRA: 5C30.11

Description: The assortment includes, a large leyden jar with a high capacitance. After being fully charged, the "crack" during discharge is impressive.

Blow up a Capacitor

PIRA: 5C30.15

Short a Capacitor

PIRA: 5C30.20

Description: Charge a large electrolytic (50,000 mfd) capacitor to 70V and short with a screwdriver.

Capacitor & Light Bulb

PIRA: 5C30.30

Description: Charge a large electrolytic capacitor and connect it to a small light bulb to discharge.

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Resistance


Bed of Nails Resistance Model

PIRA: 5D10.41

Description: Ball bearings dropped through the bed of nails serves as a model of electrons moving through a conductor. The tray is used to catch the bearings at the bottom. Different capacitor constructions are available to be shown.

Rheostat & Light Bulb

PIRA: 5D10.42

Description: By using DC voltage with a rheostat and light bulb, the change in brightness of the bulb can be easily viewed. Increase resisitance (dimmer) or decrease resistance (brighter).

Salt Tube with Multimeter

PIRA: 5D10.43

Description: A section of rubber tubing has been filled with a salt solution then sealed. The changing resistance with the "stretch" (change of length) can be viewed by using a multimeter.

Multimeter & Resistors

PIRA: 5D10.45

Fry Resistors

PIRA: 5D10.46

Superconductivity

PIRA: 5D10.47

Temperature Dependence with Liquid Nitrogen

PIRA: 5D20.10

Description: The two bulbs ( carbon and tungsten ) will show different temperature dependent resistance. The oscilloscope displays current vs. voltage for the bulbs.

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EMF & Current


Wet Cell

PIRA: 5E40.05

Fruit Battery

PIRA: 5E40.26

D-cell & light bulb

PIRA: 5E40.30

Light Bulb, D-cell & Galvanometer

PIRA: 5E40.31

Resistors, D-cell & Galvanometer

PIRA: 5E40.32

Electric Currents Laser Disk {D51,53}

PIRA: 5E40.40

Half of a Battery

PIRA: 5E40.50

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DC Circuits


Hot Dog Cooking

PIRA: 5F15.20

Description: Apply 110V through a hot dog and cook it.

100 Watt Light Bulb

PIRA: 5F15.21

Kirchoff’s Voltage Law

PIRA: 5F20.10

Description: This law states that the total voltage summed around a circuit loop will equal the amount of voltage produced by the voltage source.

Potentiometer Circuit Board

PIRA: 5F20.31

Whetstone Bridge

PIRA: 5F20.40

Series Light Bulbs

PIRA: 5F20.50

Description: Three light bulbs are connected in series. The voltage and the current can be measured at any point in the circuit using a multimeter.

Parallel Light Bulbs

PIRA: 5F20.51

Description: Three light bulbs are connected in parallel. The voltage and the current can be measured at any point in the circuit using a multimeter.

Capacitor & Light Bulb

PIRA: 5F30.10

Description: Charge a large electrolytic capacitor and connect it to a lamp. The capacitor is discharged through the light bulb.

RC Time Constant

PIRA: 5F30.20

Description: A circuit with a slow time constant (.1-10sec) is charged and discharged and the current and voltage are displayed on the computer running DataStudio.

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Magnetic Materials


Magnetism Laser Disk {D60-69}

PIRA: 5G10.05

Magnet Assortment

PIRA: 5G10.10

Description: We have horse shoe, ceramic, rubber, and rod magnets. Also, there is a magnet with four poles. By using a overhead transparency and iron filings the magnetic field lines can be shown on the overhead projector.

Broken Magnet

PIRA: 5G10.21

Description: The broken magnet demonstrates that each piece of the magnet has North pole and a South pole.

Magnetron Magnet with Iron & Brass Rods

PIRA: 5G10.31

Magnetic Domain Model

PIRA: 5G20.30

Description: The magnetic domain model can be used to show th random yet ordered arrangement of atoms in magnetic material.

Cow Magnet & Iron Filings

PIRA: 5G20.31

3 – D Magnet

PIRA: 5G20.32

Electromagnet

PIRA: 5G20.71

Description: A piece of iron placed within a solenoid which results in the increase of the magnetic field. This magnetic field is the sum of that due to the current and that due to the iron. It is called soft because the magnetism it gains and loses occurs quite rapidly when the current is turned on or off.

Liquid Oxygen

PIRA: 5G30.11

Curie Point

PIRA: 5G50.10

Description: We have gadolinium rods which will display ferromagnetic properties until they are heated to 19 degrees C. At that point and above, they become paramagnetic.

Superconductivity

PIRA: 5G50.50

Description: Place a small powerful magnet over a disc of superconducting material cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature.

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Magnetic Fields & Forces


Inclinometer

PIRA: 5H10.15

Description: A dip needle is used to show the inclination of the earth’s magnetic field.

Magnet , Iron Filings & Compass

PIRA: 5H10.30

Description: When a magnet is placed below a piece of paper and iron filings are scattered over the paper, lines of direction form. These polarity lines can reveal which direction the magnet is and which end is north and south with the use of the compass.

This reveals also the magnetic patterns induced by the poles of the magnet.

Magnet & Compass

PIRA: 5H10.31

Table Compass

PIRA: 5H10.32

3-D Magnet

PIRA: 5H10.33

Iron Filings Around a Wire {compass}

PIRA: 5H15.10

Description: We have a single wire loop, a six turn coil and a 15 turn coil. They demonstrate the magnetic field about loop(s) when a current passes through the coil(s). This can be easily done because the loop(s) are mounted in a piece of plexiglass ( for overhead projector viewing ). After iron filings are sprinkled on the plexiglass, the power source is turned on and the filings arrange in the field lines.

Iron Filings Around a 6 Turn Loop {compass}

PIRA: 5H15.11

Description: We have a single wire loop, a six turn coil and a 15 turn coil. They demonstrate the magnetic field about loop(s) when a current passes through the coil(s). This can be easily done because the loop(s) are mounted in a piece of plexiglass ( for overhead projector viewing ). After iron filings are sprinkled on the plexiglass, the power source is turned on and the filings arrange in the field lines.

Iron Filings Around a 15 Turn Loop {compass}

PIRA: 5H15.12

Description: We have a single wire loop, a six turn coil and a 15 turn coil. They demonstrate the magnetic field about loop(s) when a current passes through the coil(s). This can be easily done because the loop(s) are mounted in a piece of plexiglass ( for overhead projector viewing ). After iron filings are sprinkled on the plexiglass, the power source is turned on and the filings arrange in the field lines.

Current Carrying Wire & Compass

PIRA: 5H15.14

Solenoid & Iron Filings {compass}

PIRA: 5H15.40

Description: The solenoid can demonstrate the magnetic field about a solenoid when a current passes through the coils.

This can be easily done because the solenoid is mounted in a piece of plexiglass ( for overhead projector viewing ). After iron filings are sprinkled on the plexiglass, the power source is turned on and the filings arrange in the field lines.

Suspended Magnet

PIRA: 5H20.11

Description: Four magnets on a rod that levitate due to magnetic repulsion.

Levitation Magnets>

PIRA: 5H20.20

Description: Four magnets on a rod that levitate due to magnetic repulsion.

Electron Deflection on Laser Disk {D75}

PIRA: 5H30.05

Cathode Ray Tube

PIRA: 5H30.10

Description: Deflect the beam in an open CRT with a magnet.

Parallel Wires

PIRA: 5H40.10

Description: Demonstrates the force on current carrying parallel wires. They can show repulsion or attraction depending upon the direction of the currents in the wires.

Interacting Coils

PIRA: 5H40.15

Description: A narrow loop formed by hanging a flexible wire opens when current is passed. Two loops in proximity attract or repel depending on the current direction.

Jumping Wire

PIRA: 5H40.30

Description: A wire is placed in a horseshoe magnet and connected to a battery. The wire jumps out of the magnet.

Current Balance

PIRA: 5H40.40

Description: An open rectangle of aluminum wire is balanced between the poles of a "U" magnet until current is passed through the part perpendicular to the field.

Torque on a Current Loop

PIRA: 5H50.21

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Inductance


LR Time Constant on Scope

PIRA: 5J20.10

Description: The current and voltage of a slow time constant LR circuit are displayed on the computer using DataStudio.

LRC Ringing

PIRA: 5J30.10

Inductive Kick Circuit

PIRA: 5J30.20

Description: This happens when a DC circuit with RC charging and RLC discharging occurs.

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Electromagnetic Induction


Galvanometer, Long Wire, & Magnet

PIRA: 5K10.15

Description: A straight wire connected to a galvanometer is moved rapidly through the poles of a strong magnet.

Wire & Magnet

PIRA: 5K10.17

Description: Move a wire connected to a galvanometer in and out of a horseshoe magnet.

Induction Coil with Magnet & Galvanometer

PIRA: 5K10.20

Description: A magnet is moved in and out of a coil of wire attached to a galvanometer.

Wire Coil with Magnet, Galvanometer & Sledge Hammer

PIRA: 5K10.22

Description: A magnet is passed in and out of a copper coil hooked to a millivoltmeter and string loop hooked to an electrometer.

Flash Bulb(Use LED’s)

PIRA: 5K10.26

Description: By using the large magetron magnet, sufficient current can be attained to " set off " a flash bulb. It consists of a wire coil and a flash bulb socket mounted to an aluminum plate.

Battery and Galvanometer

PIRA: 5K10.30

Description: Attach one coil to a galvanometer, another to a battery and tap switch. Use a core to increase coupling.

Induction Accelerator

PIRA: 5K10.31

Description: Two coils are wound on an iron ring, one connected to a galvanometer, the other to a battery and switch.

Magnetic Brake

PIRA: 5K20.11

Description: Various aluminum plates swing between the poles of a magnetron magnet. Some stop and some continume swinging.

Falling Magnet

PIRA: 5K20.25

Description: Drop a magnet and then a non-mangnetic dummy through a copper tube. The magnet falls slowly.

Jumping Ring

PIRA: 5K20.30

Description: A solid aluminum ring on the vertical transformer jumps while a split ring does not.

AC Coils

PIRA: 5K30.61

Description: Light a light bulb with out it being attached to a power source. It consists of two coils, one coil is plugged into an ac outlet and the other is connected to the light bulb.

When the ac coil is plugged in and the other coil is brought close, the light bulb will glow brightly.

Motor

PIRA: 5K40.10

Description: A small electromagnetic motor shows how a simple motor is constructed and operated.

Motor on Laser Disk{D74}

PIRA: 5K40.11

Generator

PIRA: 5K40.80

Description: Use the hand-crank generator to light an ordinary light bulb.

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AC Circuits


Sine Wave on the Computer

PIRA: 5L01.10

RC Circuit {Exponential Decay of a Capacitor}

PIRA: 5L10.31

LRC Resonance

PIRA: 5L20.20

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Electromagnetic Radiation


Tesla Coil

PIRA: 5N20.40

Description: The tesla coil shows the production of high voltages.

Glowing Fluorescent Lamp

PIRA: 5N20.50

Description: Light a fluorescent light bulb is held in the Tesla coil radiation field.

Spectrum with a Prism

PIRA: 5N30.10

Description: Project white light through a high dispersion prism.

Electromagnetic Wave Model

PIRA: 5N40.10

Fluorescent Rocks

PIRA: 5N50.10

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