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Physics and Astronomy Demonstrations

Physics Demonstrations

Fire with Butch

 

Introductory Courses

  • Physics 101
  • Physics 102
  • Physics 201
  • Physics 202
  • Physics 205
  • Physics 206

Physics Demonstration Shows

In an effort to promote science, we will gladly arrange tours of our research labs and provide a live physics demonstration show for visitors. Please contact our staff listed below for more information.

Check out WSU Physics & Astronomy Outreach

Tom G. Johnson
Lecture Demonstration Specialist
Webster B-7
Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99164-2814
Phone (509) 335-5097

johnstm@wsu.edu

Hair Raising

Modern Physics


Modern Physics

 


Quantum Effects


 

Photoelectric Effect in Zinc

PIRA: 7A10.10

Description: Discharge a clean zinc plate mounted on an electroscope with UV light.

 

Vibrating Circular Wire (Bohr’s Model)

PIRA: 7A50.40

Description: Excite a circular wire at audio frequencies by an electromagnet drive to produce standing waves. A model of the electrons and their vibrations.

 

Crookes’ Radiometer

PIRA: 7A55.30

Description: A pinwheel inside of a glass bulb with partial vacuum rotates due to infrared radiation pressure.

 

X – Ray Tube & Crystal

PIRA: 7A60.96

Description: Display only.

 

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Atomic Physics


 

Line Spectra & Student Gratings

PIRA: 7B10.10

Description: Students view line sources through replica gratings.

 

Spectrum with a Prism

PIRA: 7B10.12

 

Color Filter Lamp & Student Gratings

PIRA: 7B10.15

 

Fluorescence

PIRA: 7B13.51

Description: Show many substances that fluoresce and phosphoresce in UV light, and can show short and long wavelengths.

 

Bohr Model (Oscillating Wire Ring)

PIRA: 7B50.11

Description: Excite a circular wire at audio frequencies by an electromagnet drive to produce standing waves.

 

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Nuclear Physics


 

Geiger Counter & Samples

PIRA: 7D10.10

 

Cloud Chamber

PIRA: 7D30.60

Cloud Chamber

Description: Can view the alpha, beta and gamma particles of a thorium welding rod in a very dense alcohol vapor.

 

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Relativity


 

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Optics


Optics

 


Geometrical Optics


Optical Elements

PIRA: 6A10.05

Description: Optical equipment that can show a variety of effects.

  • Corner Cube
  • Concave and Convex Mirrors
  • Full view mirrors
  • Spherical Mirror
  • Refraction Tank
  • Birefringent Crystals
  • Fresnel Lens

 

Blackboard Optics

PIRA: 6A10.10

Description: A kit of optical elements to perform most optical experiments with ray diagrams.

  • Plane Mirror
  • Concave and Convex Mirrors
  • Curved Mirrors
  • Refraction
  • Thin Lenses

 

Laser & Plane Mirror

PIRA: 6A10.15

Description: The incidence of light such as a thin beam of light from a laser is reflected off the plane mirror at an angle identical from the normal of the mirror. The equal angles of incidence and reflection in relation to the normal of the mirror follow the law of reflection.

 

Refraction Tank, Laser & Mirror

PIRA: 6A10.16

 

Disappearing Light Bulb

PIRA: 6A20.36

Description: A light bulb socket is mounted upside down inside a box. Outside the box, directly above the socket, another light bulb socket is mounted. Only the socket inside the box has a bulb and power connected to it. By using a concave mirror, the bulb inside the box appears to be outside the box when the bulb is lit. When the power is turned off the bulb seems to disappear.

 

Brewster’s Angle Overhead

PIRA: 6A42.49

 

Total Internal Reflection

PIRA: 6A44.20

Description: Refraction tank

 

Laser & Fiber Optics

PIRA: 6A44.40

Description: A laser is used with a bundle of fiber optics, a curled Plexiglas rod, and a 1″ square lean rod. As light passes through, the laser light is seen at the other end of the Plexiglas rod.

 

Fiber Optics Tree

PIRA: 6A44.44

Description: A lamp with optical fibers.

 

Projected Filament with a Lens

PIRA: 6A60.30

Description: A large simple lens can focus the filament of an aircraft landing light onto the wall. Try to project an image with a thin concave lens.

 

Broken Lens

PIRA: 6A60.33

Description: The broken lens can be used to show a whole image of an object even though there is only half of a lens. The image is complete but less intense than the image projected by a full lens of the same size and focal length.

 

Pinhole Camera

PIRA: 6A61.20

Description: A tiny hole is made in the center of one side of a box and wax or opaque paper lines the side opposite the hole. When it is held up to a light source the image will show on the paper.

 

Spherical Aberration Model

PIRA: 6A65.40

Description: A model made of strings where each string represents a different ray.

 

 

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Photometry


 

Inverse Square Model

PIRA: 6B10.15

Description: A wire frame pyramid connects areas of 1, 4 and 16 units.

 

Crookes’ Radiometer

PIRA: 6B30.11

Description: A pinwheel inside of a glass bulb with partial vacuum rotates due to infrared radiation pressure.

 

Variac & Light Bulb

PIRA: 6B40.10

Description: Vary the voltage to a 1KW light bulb with a variac to show color change with temperature.

 

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Diffraction


 

Single Slit & Laser

PIRA: 6C10.10

Description: Shine a laser beam through single slits of varying widths onto a wall.

 

Adjustable Slit & Laser

PIRA: 6C10.15

Description: Shine a laser through an adjustable slit of varying widths to view the changing interference patterns.

 

Poisson’s Spot

PIRA: 6C20.10

Description: Shine a laser at a small ball or pin and look at the diffraction.

 

Knife Edge Diffraction

PIRA: 6C20.15

Description: Slowly move a knife edge into a laser beam and view the interference due to the sharp edge of the blade.

 

Thin Wire Diffraction

PIRA: 6C20.20

Description: Place a small diameter wire or human hair in a laser, for example a .22 mm diameter wire, and measure the diameter by the diffraction pattern.

 

Pinhole Diffraction

PIRA: 6C20.30

Description: View interference due to a circular opening.

pinhole diffraction
Pinhole is not quite a perfect circle. Can still see the interference pattern.

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Interference


 

Double Slit & Laser

PIRA: 6D10.10

Description: Shine a laser beam through double slits of different widths and spacing and observe the interference patterns.

 

Modulated Laser

PIRA: 6D10.40

Description: A voltage modulated laser that optically transmits sound.

 

Gratings & Laser

PIRA: 6D20.15

Description: Various mesh and screens with various arrays that produce interesting patterns.

 

Transmission Gratings on Overhead

PIRA: 6D20.20

 

Newton’s Rings

PIRA: 6D30.10

Description: Newton’s rings will show interference patterns in the form of rings when placed on the overhead projector. The rings can be moved by adjusting the tension screws on the outer rim of the metal frame.

 

Soap Film Interference

PIRA: 6D30.20

Description: Reflect white light off a soap film onto a screen.

 

Moire Patterns Kit

PIRA: 6D30.32

 

Michelson Interferometer

PIRA: 6D40.10

Description: Use a Michelson interferometer with a laser. Pass the light onto a wall.

 

Microwave Interferometer

PIRA: 6D40.20

Description: By using a microwave emitter and a detector, an interferometer can be fashioned.  When the apparatus is configured as an interferometer, the wavelength of the emitted microwave signal can be determined. A speaker connected to the receiver will audibly indicate the intensity of the signal from the emitter.

 

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Color


 

Color Filters

PIRA: 6F10.20

Description: Cyan, magenta, and yellow filters are available as loose squares or fixed in a Plexiglas holder for use on the overhead projector.

Color Addition

PIRA: 6F10.21

Description: Three overhead projectors with filters of red, blue and green.

 

Sunset on the Overhead

PIRA: 6F40.10

Description: The sunset demo shows Raleigh scattering by using a 4L beaker, sodium-thiosulfate, and a catalyst. A particulate is created when the catalyst is added to the water / sodium-thiosulfate solution. The light that is projected to the wall changes from blue to orange red as the particulate increases.

 

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Polarization


 

Polaroids on the Overhead

PIRA: 6H10.10

Description: Show polarization with two sheets of Polaroid and a pair of sunglasses on an overhead projector.

 

Karo Syrup Polarization

PIRA: 6H10.40

 

Brewster’s Angle Polarizers

PIRA: 6H20.10

Description: Rotate a Polaroid filter in a beam that reflects at Brewster’s angle off a glass onto a screen.

 

Two Calcite Crystals

PIRA: 6H35.10

Description: Use a second calcite crystal to show the polarization of the ordinary and extraordinary rays.

 

Sunset with Polarizers

PIRA: 6H50.10

Description: The sunset demo shows Rayleigh scattering by using a fish tank, thiosodiumsulfate, a catalyst, and a carbon arc lamp. A particulate is created when the catalyst is added to the water / thio solution. The light that is projected to the wall changes from blue to orangish red as the particulate increases. A rotating polarizer can be placed in front of the tank to show polarization by scattering.

 

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The Eye


 

Eye Model

PIRA: 6J10.10

 

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Modern Optics


 

Hologram

PIRA: 6Q10.10

 

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Electricity and Magnetism


Electricity & Magnetism

 


Electrostatics


 

Electrostatics Box

PIRA: 5A10.10

Description: Items included in this box are as follows: silk, glass rod, fur, plastic rod, pith balls, resistor, charging plates, packing peanuts in a Ziploc bag, and a ping pong ball on a string. We have two boxes described as above. Numerous electrostatic demonstrations can be performed by using this box in conjunction with the Van de Graaff generator.

 

Electrophorus

PIRA: 5A10.20

Description: Use a metal plate on a handle to transfer charge from a large charged surface.

 

Suspended Balloons

PIRA: 5A10.31

Description: The balloon can be charged and then used to show attraction to neutral objects.

 

Scotch Tape & Electroscope

PIRA: 5A10.32

 

Flying Fur

PIRA: 5A20.11

Description: A small patch of fur is placed on top of a Van de Graaf. As it charges up, charge is transferred to the fur and eventually they repel each other and the fur flies off.

 

Pith Balls

PIRA: 5A20.20

Description: Suspend two small pith balls from a common support and show either attraction or repulsion. Charge the two pith balls and they attract or repel.

 

Coulombs Law with Balloons

PIRA: 5A20.21

Description: Similar to the pith balls, the two balloons are suspended and as they are charged, they will attract or repel each other.

 

Ringing Bells

PIRA: 5A20.34

Description: Four bells are arranged so their strikers will transfer charge to ground. When the transfer occurs, the strikers hit the bells and thus the “ringing bells”.

 

Volta’s Hail Storm

PIRA: 5A20.36

Description: Styrofoam pieces will jump around in a jar when the Van de Graaff is connected to an electrode at the top of the hail storm apparatus. The Styrofoam is transferring charge from the electrode to ground.

 

Electroscope Assortment

PIRA: 5A22.11

Description: The project-o-scope is an electroscope that is viewable on the overhead projector or document camera. The set of rods is used to show the two kinds of charge. The project-o-scope can be charged by both conduction and induction. The methods for testing for charge type with a charged electroscope can be shown. There is a toilet float electoscope as well.

 

Foam Model of Insulators & Conductors

PIRA: 5A30.05

Description: Three models are available for drawing analogies to insulators, semi-conductors, and conductors. The insulator has deep pockets which will hold steel balls (electrons) in place. The semi-conductor has shallow pockets and the conductor has no pockets, so the balls are free to roll around.

Insulators & conductor foam models 8.11

 

2 ” X 4 ” Attraction of Neutral Objects

PIRA: 5A40.30

Description: A 2” x 4” balanced on a watch glass can be easily moved with a charged rod.  The PVC pipe charged with the fur works quite well.

 

Deflection of a Water Stream

PIRA: 5A40.41

Description: By using a charged rod, either the glass and silk or the PVC pipe and the fur, a stream of water is easily deflected.

 

Electrostatic Motor

PIRA: 5A50.05

Description: A motor operated by electrostatic charges drawn from an electrostatic generator.

 

Wimshurst Machine

PIRA: 5A50.10

Description: This machine will generate static electricity.

 

Van de Graaff Generator

PIRA: 5A50.30

Description: The Van de Graff can quickly and easily produce very high voltages. It can be used in conjunction with pith balls, Styrofoam peanuts, grounding rod, and Mylar balloons to demonstrate a buildup of static charge.

 

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Electric Fields & Potential


 

Hair on End

PIRA: 5B10.10

Description: A person stands on an insulated platform with one hand on the dome of the Van de Graff Generator.  As another person operates the Van de Graff, the hair of the person on the platform rises and aligns in the direction of the electric field.

 

Van de Graaff String Streamers

PIRA: 5B10.15

Description: The Van de Graaff with strings attached can show the direction of the electric field lines emanating from the dome. If a piece of the fur is placed on top of an uncharged Van de Graaff, once charged, the fur will fly off in the direction of the electric field. Styrofoam peanuts will behave similarly. When charged, the Van de Graff with strings attached displays the direction of the electric field lines emanating from the dome.

 

Grass Seed

PIRA: 5B10.41

Description: The grass seed suspended in oil can be used to show electric field lines around various configuration. The Van de Graaff can be used to supply a potential difference. The tray is set up on an overhead projector or document camera so the shadows of the seeds are seen lining up along the electric field lines.

 

Faraday Cage & Radio

PIRA: 5B20.15

Description: The cage blocks the electromagnetic field and the radio is unable to pick up a signal.

 

Fluorescent Tube

PIRA: 5B30.15

Description: If a fluorescent tube is brought near a charged Van de Graaff, a potential difference across the tube will exist if the tube is held along a radius. The tube will light, showing that potential changes in the direction of the field. If the tube is held “tangent” to the Van de Graaff, no potential will exist between the ends so the tube won’t light.

 

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Capacitance


 

Capacitor Assortment

PIRA: 5C10.10

Description: A selection of capacitors can show that the size of the capacitor is not always related to the amount of capacitance.

 

Leyden Jar Assortment

PIRA: 5C30.11

Description: The assortment includes, a large Leyden jar with a high capacitance. The large Leyden jar has a capacitance of 1100 pF. After being fully charged, the crack during discharge is quite impressive.

 

Discharging Leyden Jar

PIRA: 5C30.12

Description: The large Leyden jar has a capacitance of 1100 pF. After being fully charged, the crack during discharge is quite impressive.

 

Blow up a Capacitor

PIRA: 5C30.15

Description:  Overcharging a capacitor beyond its limits will cause it to blow up.

 

Short a Capacitor

PIRA: 5C30.20

Description: Charge a large electrolytic (50,000 mfd) capacitor to 70V and short with a screwdriver. The sparks really fly.

 

Capacitor & Light Bulb

PIRA: 5C30.30

Description: Charge a large electrolytic (5000 mfd) capacitor to 120V and short it.  Also, charge the large electrolytic capacitor and connect it to a lamp. The bulb will glow brightly.

 

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Resistance


 

Rheostat & Light Bulb

PIRA: 5D10.42

Description: By using DC voltage with a rheostat and light bulb, the change in brightness of the bulb can be easily viewed. Increase resistance (dimmer) or decrease resistance (brighter).

 

Salt Tube with Multimeter

PIRA: 5D10.43

Description: A section of rubber tubing has been filled with a salt solution then sealed. It can be stretched or pinched to show  change in resistance and can be viewed by using a multimeter.

 

Multimeter & Resistors

PIRA: 5D10.45

 

Fry Resistors

PIRA: 5D10.46

Description: Similar to capacitors, overload the resistors with current and they will begin to “cook”.

 

Superconductivity

PIRA: 5D10.47

Description:This demonstrates no or close to zero resistance to the passage of electrical current.

 

Temperature Dependence with Liquid Nitrogen

PIRA: 5D20.10

Description: A dowel is wrapped in copper wire and connected to a battery and a light bulb. When liquid nitrogen is used to cool the copper wire, resistance decreases and the bulb will glow brighter.

 

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EMF & Current


 

Wet Cell

PIRA: 5E40.05

Fruit Battery

PIRA: 5E40.26

 

D-cell & light bulb

PIRA: 5E40.30

 

Light Bulb, D-cell & Galvanometer

PIRA: 5E40.31

 

Resistors, D-cell & Galvanometer

PIRA: 5E40.32

 

Electric Currents Laser Disk {D51,53}

PIRA: 5E40.40

 

Half of a Battery

PIRA: 5E40.50

 

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DC Circuits


 

Hot Dog Cooking

PIRA: 5F15.20

Description: Apply 110V through a hot dog and cook it.

 

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

PIRA: 5F20.10

Description: This law states that the total voltage summed around a circuit loop will equal the amount of voltage produced by the voltage source. A small board (can be put on a document camera or overhead projector) is equipped with 2 batteries and various resistors.  The voltage rises and falls can be tested around the circuit to demonstrate Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law.

 

Series Light Bulbs

PIRA: 5F20.50

Description: Three light bulbs are connected in series. The voltage and the current can be measured at any point in the circuit using a multimeter.

 

Parallel Light Bulbs

PIRA: 5F20.51

Description: Three light bulbs are connected in parallel. The voltage and the current can be measured at any point in the circuit using a multimeter.

 

Capacitor & Light Bulb

PIRA: 5F30.10

Description: Charge a large electrolytic capacitor and connect it to a lamp. The capacitor is discharged through the light bulb.

 

RC Time Constant Board

PIRA: 5F30.20

Description: A circuit with a slow time constant (.1-10sec) is charged and discharged.

 

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Magnetic Materials


Magnet Assortment

PIRA: 5G10.10

Description: We have horse shoe, ceramic, rubber, and rod magnets. Also, there is a magnet with four poles. The magnetic field lines can be shown on the overhead projector or document camera.

 

Broken Magnet

PIRA: 5G10.21

Description: The broken magnet demonstrates that each piece of the magnet has North pole and a South pole.

 

Magnetic Domain Model

PIRA: 5G20.30

Description: The magnetic domain model can be used to show the random yet ordered arrangement of atoms in magnetic material.

 

Liquid Oxygen

PIRA: 5G30.11

Description: The link is a video of liquid oxygen on a magnet, between the poles.

 

Curie Point

PIRA: 5G50.10

Description: We have gadolinium rods which will display ferromagnetic properties until they are heated to 19 degrees C. At that point and above, they become paramagnetic.

 

Superconductivity (Meissner Effect)

PIRA: 5G50.50

Description: Place a small powerful rare earth magnet on a superconductor while cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature, the magnet will hover above the disc.

 

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Magnetic Fields & Forces


 

Magnet , Iron Filings & Compass

PIRA: 5H10.30

Description: This displays the magnetic field. When a magnet is placed below two transparent sheets with iron filings between them, lines of direction form. These polarity lines can reveal which direction the magnet is and which end is north and south with the use of the compass. This reveals also the magnetic patterns induced by the poles of the magnet.

 

3-D Magnet

PIRA: 5H10.33

Description: A magnet can be placed in a transparent cylinder filled with iron filings. This will show the magnetic field in a three dimensional form.

 

Iron Filings Around a Wire {compass}

PIRA: 5H15.10

Description: We have a single wire loop, a six turn coil, a 15 turn coil and a solenoid. They demonstrate the magnetic field about loop(s) when a current passes through the coil(s). This can be easily done because the loop(s) are mounted in a piece of Plexiglas (for overhead projector viewing). After iron filings are sprinkled on the Plexiglas, the power source is turned on and the filings arrange in the field lines.

 

Levitation Magnets

PIRA: 5H20.20

Description: Four magnets on a rod that levitate due to magnetic repulsion.

 

Cathode Ray Tube / Crookes Tube

PIRA: 5H30.10

Description: Deflect an electron beam with a magnet.

 

Parallel and Interacting Coils

PIRA: 5H40.10

Description: Two coils are hung freely. When a current passes through them in the same direction, the coils repel and attract when the current passes through them in opposite directions.

 

Jumping Wire

PIRA: 5H40.30

Description: A loop or several loops of wire are placed in the large magnetron magnet and connected to a power supply. When the power is turned on, the wire violently jumps out of the magnetic field.

 

Current Balance

PIRA: 5H40.40

 

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Inductance


 

LR Time Constant on Computer

PIRA: 5J20.10

Description: The current and voltage of a slow time constant LR circuit are displayed on the computer using DataStudio or Capstone.

 

Inductive Kick Circuit

PIRA: 5J30.20

Description: This demonstrates a back EMF with an Inductor.

 

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Electromagnetic Induction


 

Galvanometer, Long Wire, & Magnet

PIRA: 5K10.15

Description:  A straight wire and the galvanometer are connected.  As a magnet passes the wire, an induced EMF is created and the galvanometer deflects to show the presence of a current.

 

Induction Coil with Magnet & Galvanometer

PIRA: 5K10.20

Description: The coil and the galvanometer are connected.  As a magnet passes through the coil, an induced EMF is created and the galvanometer deflects show the presence of a current.

 

Coil, LEDs and Magnet

PIRA: 5K10.26

Description: By using the large magnetron magnet, sufficient current can be attained to light LEDs. It consists of a wire coil and LEDs.

 

Battery and Galvanometer

PIRA: 5K10.30

Description: Attach one coil to a galvanometer, another to a battery and tap switch. Use an iron core to increase coupling.

 

Magnetic Brake

PIRA: 5K20.11

Description: Various aluminum plates swing between the poles of a magnetron magnet. Some stop due to eddy currents and some continue swinging.

 

Falling Magnet

PIRA: 5K20.25

Description: First a non-ferromagnetic dummy is dropped through a copper tube, then a cow magnet is dropped through the copper tube. If a cow magnet is dropped through a vertically positioned long copper tube, the moving magnetic field about the cow magnet creates an eddy current in the copper tube and a magnetic field, which opposes that of the falling cow magnet.  Thus, the magnet slowly falls through the copper tube (it can take several seconds to fall about 2 meters). Compare the magnet’s fall time to the dummy’s fall time.

 

Jumping Ring

PIRA: 5K20.30

Description:

The device is constructed of a large number of coils wrapped around an iron core.  It can either be plugged into an AC wall socket or connected to a large current power supply.  The iron core can be pulled up (partially) out of the coil and various rings put around the core.  When the switch is engaged, the conductive rings will jump up a little (using DC power supply) or fly completely off the coil (when using the AC outlet).

Elements that can be used:

  • A coil of wire with a light bulb attached
  • Side walls of an aluminum pop can
  • Coil of wire
  • Copper spring that can have the ends disconnected
  • A couple split rings
  • Plastic, aluminum and copper rings

 

AC Coils

PIRA: 5K30.61

Description: Light a light bulb with out it being attached to a power source. It consists of two coils, one coil is plugged into an AC outlet and the other is connected to the light bulb.

When the AC coil is plugged in and the other coil is brought close, the light bulb will glow brightly. Using an iron core coupler, the bulb will glow even brighter.

 

Motor

PIRA: 5K40.10

Description: A small electromagnetic motor shows how a simple motor is constructed and operated. The motor is a very simple motor with easy to see components.  It operates well at around 6 Volts.

 

Generator

PIRA: 5K40.80

Description: Use the hand-crank generator to light an ordinary light bulb. A series of coils are rotated within a magnetic field by using a crank. A light bulb is connected to the unit. When the coils are rotated quickly, the light bulb begins to glow.

 

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AC Circuits


 

Sine Wave on the Computer

PIRA: 5L01.10

 

RC Circuit {Exponential Decay of a Capacitor}

PIRA: 5L10.31

Description: By using a function generator, a resistor, a capacitor, phase differences can be shown at a range of frequencies and values of the constituent components. This shows the charging and discharging of a capacitor.

 

RLC Resonance

PIRA: 5L20.20

Description: Wiki Description.

 

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Electromagnetic Radiation


 

Tesla Coil (Hand Held) and Fluorescent Bulb

PIRA: 5N20.25

Description: Light a fluorescent bulb by touching with a hand held Tesla coil.

 

Spectrum with a Prism

PIRA: 5N30.10

Description: Project white light through a high dispersion prism.

 

Electromagnetic Wave Model

PIRA: 5N40.10

Description: A 3D electromagnetic wave model.

 

 

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Oscillations and Waves


 

Oscillations & Waves

 


Oscillations


 

Simple Pendulum

PIRA: 3A10.10

Description: A simple pendulum can be erected, set into motion and timed to discuss the period of a simple harmonic oscillator.  By using a motion sensor, the sinusoidal motion of the pendulum can be displayed.

 

Bowling Ball Pendulum with Motion Sensor

PIRA: 3A10.15

Description: The bowling ball can be suspended from the ceiling to create a pendulum. The period of the pendulum can be measured and the length of the pendulum can be calculated.

 

Different Mass Pendulums

PIRA: 3A10.17

Description: Pendula of the same length and different mass oscillate together.

 

Torsion Pendulum

PIRA: 3A10.30

Description: The torsional pendulum can be used to demonstrate that changes in the moment of inertia effect the angular speed of the object. The moment of inertia can be changed by placing masses in various positions on the disk. The torsional pendulum can also be used to discuss Hooke’s law and the torsional elastic constant, k. Discussions of torsional simple harmonic motion are also applicable.

 

Meter Stick Pendulum

PIRA: 3A15.11

Description: This can be used to demonstrate a physical pendulum.

 

Mass on a Spring

PIRA: 3A20.10

Description: When these springs are used to suspend the same mass, it can be shown that the frequency of oscillation depends on the spring constant of the material. The simple spring and mass system can be set into motion and timed to discuss the period of another simple harmonic oscillator.  By using a motion sensor, the sine wave motion of the spring and mass system can be displayed. There is also a variation of this demo to show damped harmonic motion.

 

Springs & Masses

PIRA: 3A20.11

Description: When these springs are used to suspend the same mass, it can be shown that the frequency of oscillation depends on the spring constant of the material. The motion sensor can be used to show the sinusoidal motion.

 

Air Track Glider and Spring

PIRA: 3A20.30

Description: An air cart is attached to a single horizontal coil spring. The cart driven by a mechanical vibrator and function generator.

 

Turntable Oscillator and Pendulum

PIRA: 3A40.20

Description: Shadow project a pendulum and turntable which have identical frequencies.

 

Damped Motion with Motion Sensor

PIRA: 3A50.23

Description: A spring is hung above a motion sensor with a mass attached. A sheet of foam core is attached to the mass to create a damped effect.

 

Tacoma Narrows (video)

PIRA: 3A60.10

Description: The digitized video is about 9 minutes in length.

 

Resonance Pendula

PIRA: 3A60.31

Description: Several ping pong balls and a pool ball are suspended at different lengths from a horizontal support string. If the pool ball is set to oscillate, the ping pong balls will also swing. The largest amplitude will occur for the ping pong ball suspended at the same length as the pool ball.

 

Resonating Tuning Forks

PIRA: 3A60.52

Description: The various tuning forks have different frequencies and can be used in various ways to show the effects.

 

Resonating Water Column

PIRA: 3A60.53

Description: A speaker is placed above a tube of water. When the water level is right for the frequency, the tube becomes like a resonance chamber. The water level and the frequency can be adjusted to show this effect.

 

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Wave Motion


 

Pulse on a Rope

PIRA: 3B10.10

Description: Give a heavy piece of stretched rope, rubber tubing, or nylon cord a quick pulse.

 

Pulse on a Spring

PIRA: 3B10.12

Description: This long spring can be attached to the wall in any of the lecture halls and then stretched nearly the length of the room. It is great for showing pulses and standing waves, but not longitudinal waves.

 

Slinky on the Table

PIRA: 3B10.20

Description: Create pulses and waves by hand on a slinky that is stretched down the lecture bench.

 

Bell Labs Wave Model

PIRA: 3B10.30

Description: The bell wave machine is a device constructed of many rods supported from their centers and connected by a cable. Displacement of one rod will propagate to the rest of the rods. Different length rods are available to display different wavelengths. Different boundary conditions can be constructed to show both reflection and transmission. The device is very versatile.

 

Columbia Wave Machine

PIRA: 3B10.41

Description: A wonderful antique device that with the turn of a crank shows the motions associated with water waves, sound waves, and ether waves.

 

Vibrating String

PIRA: 3B22.10

Description: Drive one end of a string over a pulley to a mass with variable frequency SHM.

 

Doppler Football

PIRA: 3B40.12

Description: Football emits a high frequency tone that demonstrates the Doppler Effect when thrown past, over, or by the students.

 

Leslie Speaker Doppler Effect

PIRA: 3B40.16

Description: One or two speakers rotate as they produce a frequency. The frequency changes as the speaker moves demonstrating the Doppler effect.

 

Ripple Tank – Single Slit

PIRA: 3B50.10

Description: Diffraction occurs from a plane wave passing through a single slit on the ripple tank.

 

Ripple Tank – Double Source

PIRA: 3B50.20

Description: The plane wave through each slit diffracts, but they also show interference.

 

Moire Pattern Transparencies

PIRA: 3B50.40

Description: A double slit representation of Moire patterns from two sheets of semicircular ruled transparencies.

 

Speaker Interference (Same Frequency)

PIRA: 3B55.10

Description: Two speakers run the same frequency but sit far enough away to hear the interference between the two.

 

Speaker Interference (Different Frequency)

PIRA: 3B55.11

Description: Two speakers run different frequencies and the beats between them can be heard.

 

Beat Tuning Forks

PIRA: 3B60.10

Description: Two identical tuning forks (A = 440 Hz) complete with sound boxes can be used to show resonance and beats. If one fork is struck, the other will vibrate sympathetically. A small clamp (or clay) is available to slightly change the frequency of one of the forks. When the two forks are then struck simultaneously, beats can be heard. In all cases, the sound can be amplified by the sound system in B16.

 

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Acoustics


 

Bottle Scale (Pop Bottle with Water)

PIRA: 3C20.25

Description: The pop bottles contain different levels of water. When air is blown over the top they produce different frequencies depending on the level of water.

 

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Instruments


 

Guitar

PIRA: 3D20.21

Description: Stringed instrument can be played to find the frequency of vibrating strings.

 

Violin

PIRA: 3D22.10

Description: Stringed instrument can be played to find the frequency of vibrating strings.

 

Resonating Water Column

PIRA: 3D30.10

Description: A speaker is placed above a tube of water. When the water level is right for the frequency, the tube becomes like a resonance chamber. The water level and the frequency can be adjusted to show this effect.

 

Corrugated Tube

PIRA: 3D30.17

Description: An open tube of corrugated plastic is whirled around at some frequency to produce a singing pipe.

 

Bell Jar

PIRA: 3D30.30

Description: A buzzer is placed in a bell jar. When the air is evacuated from the jar, the buzzer can no longer be heard.

 

Sound Level Meter

PIRA: 3D30.50

Description: This records the decibels of a sound.

 

Organ Pipes

PIRA: 3D32.10

Description: Show open and closed pipes of various lengths to give the monotonic scale.

 

Organ

PIRA: 3D32.11

Description:  Video displaying current draw while pipe organ is played. (YouTube Link)

 

Xylophone

PIRA: 3D40.10

Description: Play this instrument to demonstrate the musical scale.

 

Chladni Plates

PIRA: 3D40.30

Description: A mechanical vibrator and function generator vibrate a horizontal metal plate covered with sand while touching the edge at various nodal points.

 

Bohr Model (Oscillating Wire)

PIRA: 3D40.41

Description: A circular wire can be vibrated into various nodes.

 

Brandy Snifter

PIRA: 3D40.51

Description: Create standing waves by gently rubbing your finger on the rim of a brandy snifter partially filled with colored water.

 

Assorted Tuning Forks

PIRA: 3D46.10

Description: These are used to hear and display the varying wavelengths and waveforms with the ear and oscilloscope respectively.

 

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Thermodynamics


Thermodynamics

 


Thermal Properties of Matter


 

Thermometers

PIRA: 4A10.10

Description: Show the varying types of thermometers and describe what each is used for.

 

Linear Expansion Apparatus

PIRA: 4A30.05

Description: As a rod is heated, it deflects the needle showing expansion.

 

Bimetal Strip

PIRA: 4A30.10

Description: A bimetal strip is manufactured by pressing together two metals of different thermal expansion coefficients. When the strip is heated, it bends one direction and when cooled it bends in the opposing direction.

Ball & Ring

PIRA: 4A30.21

Description: When the ball and ring are both at the same temperature the ball will just barely fit through the ring. If the ball is heated up or the hoop is cooled (in liquid nitrogen) the ball will not fit through the ring. There is also a bar and slot that works using the same principle. For heating, we use either boiling water or a Bernzomatic torch and liquid nitrogen for cooling.

 

Pin Breaker

PIRA: 4A30.31

Description: Heat a rod to expansion and it breaks a 1/8″ diameter pin as it cools.

 

Wire Heater

PIRA: 4A30.61

Description: A wire is put under tension by a small spring. The apparatus is viewable on the overhead projector. When the wire is heated by an electrical current, it stretches and the coils of the spring contract.

 

Lead Bell & Solder Spring

PIRA: 4A40.10

Description: A bell made of lead will ring when cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The coil of solder will perform like a spring when cooled to – 176 degrees C.

 

Smashing Rose, Rubber Tubing, or Racquet Ball

PIRA: 4A40.30

Description: When these objects are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen, they will shatter like glass.

 

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Heat and the First Law


 

Specific Heat Apparatus

PIRA: 4B10.30

Description: Four metal cylinders {lead, iron, aluminum, and copper} of the same diameter and mass are heated to the temperature of boiling water in a beaker. The cylinders are then placed on a wax block and allowed to melt into the block. The distance that they melt into the block is a measure of their specific heat capacity.

 

Convection Tube

PIRA: 4B20.10

Description: A rectangular tube filled with water. A small amount of potassium permanganate is added to the water for color. When the tube is heated, the current flow is quite visual.

 

Melting Parafin (conduction)

PIRA: 4B30.12

Description: Six rods of different metals are attached to a center ring which can be heated with a Bunsen burner. Wax squares are placed at the midpoint and the end of each rod. When enough heat has reached the squares of wax, they melt and fall off. The conduction difference between the metals is quite apparent.

 

Light the Candle

PIRA: 4B40.10

Description: Two parabolic mirrors are placed on the table. One has a heating coil at its focal point and the other has a candle and match at the focal point. When the heating coil is on, there is enough radiated heat to light the match and candle.

 

Radiometer

PIRA: 4B40.61

Description: When exposed to light {IR is best} , the vanes spin very rapidly due to radiated thermal energy.

 

Boy Scout Fire Maker

PIRA: 4B60.55

Description: A bow for starting fires “Indian style”. It uses friction to generate heat.

 

Dowel Drill

PIRA: 4B60.56

Description: A dowel is put in the chuck of the drill and it will burn a hole in a soft piece of wood.

 

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Change of State


 

PV diagram model 

PIRA: 4C10.10

Description: Pressure vs. volume 3D models for H2O and CO2.

 

Melting Ice

PIRA: 4C20.05

Description: The objective of this demonstration is to introduce critical temperatures.

A small portion of water is frozen with a thermometer in it. The computer is set up to take readings from the thermometer in specified intervals and graph the results.

Begin the computer program before turning on the hot plate, then turn on the hot plate. The computer will graph the temperature of the water. The graph will exhibit two flat spots. These are critical temperatures where a phase change is taking place.

 

Cryophorus

PIRA: 4C31.10

Description: A small amount of water is enclosed in an evacuated vessel. The vessel is two bulbs connected by a tube. One bulb has a concave surface to hold a small amount of liquid nitrogen. When the liquid nitrogen is poured into the concave surface, the water in the opposite end of the vessel will begin to freeze.

 

Drinking Bird

PIRA: 4C31.30

Description: The bird shows that work can be extracted from a low thermal energy pool through evaporation.

 

Pulse Glass

PIRA: 4C33.50

Description: There are two pulse glasses available, one large and one small. When the end with the liquid is placed in the palm of the hand, the liquid is forced into the other end due to vapor pressure.

 

Crush the Can (Steam)

PIRA: 4C33.60

Description: A small amount of water is heated and the can is capped, the can is then placed in ice water. Because steam molecules are active, when they are cooled they condense crushing the can.

 

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Kinetic Theory


 

Crookes’ Radiometer

PIRA: 4D20.10

Description: A pinwheel inside of a glass bulb with partial vacuum rotates due to radiation pressure. Particularly helpful with infrared.

 

Cenco Kinetic Theory Apparatus

PIRA: 4D30.10

Description: A motor driven device, which can be placed on the overhead to show a simulation of molecular motion. It contains many small ball bearings of the same size but it could be filled with ball bearings of different sizes. Temperature change simulation can be achieved by controlling the speed of the motor.

 

Absolute Pressure Gauge

PIRA: 4D30.25

Description: The absolute pressure gauge is used to determine the pressure of gas at different known temperatures. The points normally used are: boiling water, ice water, and liquid nitrogen. Used to determine absolute zero. An overhead transparency graph of temperature vs. pressure can be used. The absolute pressure gauge is used to determine the pressure of a gas at different known temperatures. The points normally used are: boiling water (100°C), ice water (0°C), and liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The pressure is recorded on an overhead transparency graph for each of the temperatures.  A best-fit line drawn through the three points to the pressure axis will determine absolute zero (approximately).

 

Diffusion in Air (Smell of Paint Reducer)

PIRA: 4D50.11

Description: The paint reducer is a strong smelling chemical that diffuses through the air when the container is opened so that everyone will be able to smell it.

 

Diffusion in Liquid (Food Color in Water)

PIRA: 4D50.61

Description: A couple drops of food coloring diffuses through water.

 

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Gas Law


 

Galileo’s Thermometer

PIRA: 4E10.12

Description: A spherical flask is inverted and connected to a thin tube which is inserted in a beaker of water. The water is colored for easy visibility. When the air in the flask is heated with a torch, it expands and push the fluid down the tube. If heated sufficiently, gas will escape from the bottom of the tube and when the air cools to room temperature, the fluid in the tube will rise above the level of the beaker (this should be done as prep.). When the flask is cooled with a wet towel, the fluid level in the tube will rise.

 

Balloons in Liquid Nitrogen

PIRA: 4E10.20

Description: Pour liquid nitrogen over an air filled balloon until it collapses and then let it warm up again.

 

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Entropy and the Second Law


 

Unmixer

PIRA: 4F10.11

Description: A tall cylinder filled with glycerol. If a small amount of dye can be injected into the glycerol, a crank on the cylinder can be turned and an inner cylinder spins and spreads out the dye {mixes it}. When the crank is turned the opposite direction, the dye is returned to its original position. Thus, the unmixer.

 

Dust Explosion

PIRA: 4F10.40

Description: An explosion due to organic dust can be caused using lycopodium powder. A lit candle is placed in a can. Then, a spoon of lycopodium powder is placed where it can be dispersed with a puff of air.

 

Stirling Engine

PIRA: 4F30.10

Wikipedia

Description: This demonstrates that the Sterling cycle can be used to perform work. The Stirling Engine consists of a cold reservoir (filled with crushed ice), hot reservoir (produced by burning gas), and a chamber of air.  Two pistons one from the hot reservoir and one from the cold reservoir are connected to a flywheel and are 90° out of phase. The configuration allows for the trapped air in the chamber to be compressed and expanded.  Once the heat reservoir becomes hot enough, the flywheel can be spun and it will continue to spin until the two reservoirs arrive at temperatures nearer equilibrium.

 

Ice Mobile

PIRA: 4F30.61

Description: A pulley system similar to a compound bow has nitinol wire (“memory wire”) around it. Half of the set up is placed in hot water and an ice cube is placed against the wire between the two pulleys. The pulleys then begin to spin because of the differences in temperature, creating an Ice Engine.

 

Thermoelectric Fan

PIRA: 4F30.62

Description: A fan has one blade placed in hot water and the other in cold. The difference in temperature will cause the fan to spin.

 

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Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics

 


Surface Tension


 

Submerged Float

PIRA: 2A10.15

Description: A ring with a large cork stopper attached is weighted so that it will float with the ring above the surface. When the ring is forced below the surface, it cannot rise above the surface due to surface tension.

 

Needle Float

PIRA: 2A10.20

Description: The surface tension of water is sufficient to float a slightly greasy sewing needle, skin oil will work.

 

Floating Strawberry Basket

PIRA: 2A10.22

Description: Even though strawberry baskets are more dense than water they will float because of surface tension. They will sink if they are wet and will not float again until they are completely dry.

 

Plate Measure of Surface Tension

PIRA: 2A10.33

Description: A round plate is lifted by a rubber band, and the rubber band stretches to a certain length. When the round plate is placed on the surface of water and lifted again, the rubber band will stretch more.

 

Bubble Makers

PIRA: 2A10.52

Description: A set of bubble makers to demonstrate surface tension, and discuss why bubbles are always round.

 

Double Bubble Paradox (Subtitle)

PIRA: 2A10.53

Description: Two bubbles are blown, one should be larger than the other. When the two are connected together, the larger bubble will get even larger. This is due to surface tension.

 

Capillary Tubes

PIRA: 2A20.10

Description: Show the rise of water in a small diameter tube due to surface tension.

 

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Statics of Fluids


 

Pressure Independent of Direction

PIRA: 2B20.10

Description: Thistle tubes connected to a U-tube manometer are used to determine the pressure at depth in a fluid. The thistle tube point both downward and sideways. Direction of the pressure can be discussed as one thistle tube points downward and the other points to the side.

 

Pascal’s Vessels

PIRA: 2B20.40

Description: These variously shaped tubes are used to show that water seeks its own level. The height of the fluid in the column depends only on the pressure to which it is exposed and not on the diameter of the column.

 

Hydraulic Press

PIRA: 2B20.60

Description: The hydraulic jack can be used to break scrap pieces of wood, showing that the force on the small cylinder is multiplied to achieve the larger force on the large cylinder.

 

Bed of Nails

PIRA: 2B20.63

 

1 atm Bar

PIRA: 2B30.06

Description: A steel bar that weighs 14.7 lbs and is 1 square inch in cross section demonstrates the atmospheric pressure per square inch.

 

Crush the Can {steam}

PIRA: 2B30.10

Description: A small amount of water is heated in a can and the can is then capped. When the can is placed in ice water, the active steam molecules are condensed as they cool, crushing the can.

 

Crush the Can {vacuum}

PIRA: 2B30.25

Description: A can is connected to a vacuum pump. When the air is taken out of the can the atmosphere then collapses the can.

 

Lift a Stool

PIRA: 2B30.50

Description: Place a square foot of 1/16″ rubber sheet on a chair and lift the chair by pulling up on a handle attached to the rubber seat.

 

Weigh a Submerged Block

PIRA: 2B40.10

Description: The objective of this demonstration is to show that the weight of displaced water added to the weight of the mass in the water is equal to the weight of the mass out of the water.

Weigh a mass on a scale. While still connected to the scale, place that mass in a bucket of water. Allow the displaced water to run over into a large beaker. Weigh the mass in the water. Now, weigh the displaced water. Make sure that the beaker has been weighed in advance so as to be able to know the weight of the water.

Show that the weight of the displaced water + the weight of the mass in the water = the weight of the mass outside of the water.

 

Finger in Beaker on Scale

PIRA: 2B40.15

Description: A finger placed in a beaker of water on a scale clearly exhibits buoyancy force.

 

Archimedes’ Principle

PIRA: 2B40.22

Description: Suspend a pail and a mass from a force sensor, lower the mass into the water, collect the overflow, and pour into the pail.

 

Cartesian Diver

PIRA: 2B40.30

Description: A plastic pipette is filled with water and air to the point of being nearly zero buoyant. The pipette is in a 2 L. plastic pop bottle filled with water. When the bottle is squeezed the air in the pipette is compressed and the diver sinks. Changes in the atmospheric pressure can make the diver rise or fall. {Make sure that it works before it is tried in front of the class.

 

Water / Alcohol Tubes

PIRA: 2B40.53

Description: A water barometer and an alcohol barometer are connected together across their tops. If air is drawn OUT of the system through the hose, the columns is the barometers rise. The dependence of the height of the column on the density of the fluid can be shown.

 

Water level Displacement

PIRA: 2B40.55

Description: This demonstration shows that a large item that floats will displace more water when it floats than when it sinks.

 

Buoyant Force Rotator

PIRA: 2B40.57

Description: Two large Erlenmeyer flasks on the ends of a rotating platform. In each is a float, and on one is tied a float on the outside. When it is rotated, the ball on the outside goes out from the flask and the floats on the inside go toward the center.

 

Density Ball

PIRA: 2B40.59

Description: A ball when placed in cold water will float, but when placed in 40 degrees C the ball sinks.

 

Hero’s Fountain

PIRA: 2B60.10

Description: A fountain that appears to defy the law that water can only rise to its highest level. The fountain appears because of the air space in the lower bulb.

 

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Dynamics of Fluids


 

Leaking Can

PIRA: 2C10.27

Description: This demonstrates the difference in pressure at different heights as the water will leak from the can at different rates depending on the height of the hole.

 

Venturi Tube

PIRA: 2C20.11

Description: Three glass tubes are connected to each other on the bottom and top so the level of fluid is the same in each. When air is blown through the upper most tube, the levels of the fluid in the tubes change to show the pressure difference. The diameter of the upper tube varies where each of the three tubes connect. When air is blown through the upper tube (across the tops of the vertical tubes) the levels of the fluid in the tubes change as the pressure for each change. The smaller diameter reduces the pressure more, so the water level would rise in the more constricted flow.

Floating Ball or Light Bulb

PIRA: 2C20.30

Description: A ball is suspended in a stream of air. The angle of the air stream can be changed from vertical to about 30 degrees while the ball remains suspended.  Other objects can be floated too, light bulbs, etc.

 

Funnel and Ball

PIRA: 2C20.35

Description: When air is blown through the neck of the funnel, the ping pong ball will hover.

 

Frisbee

PIRA: 2C20.42

Description: Demonstrate Bernoulli effect.

 

Boomerang

PIRA: 2C20.43

Description: An airfoil, it returns to the sender when it is thrown properly.

 

Hanging Billiard Balls

PIRA: 2C20.46

Description: The object is to get someone to blow the balls apart by blowing between them. The harder the person blows, the closer the balls get.

 

Demonstration Airfoil

PIRA: 2C20.51

Description: An airfoil to show the class why airplanes fly.

 

Pitot Tubes

PIRA: 2C40.11

Description: These are air speed indicators.

 

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Mechanics

Mechanics

 


Measurement


 

Standards of Mass (mass set)

PIRA: 1A10.20

Description: The objective of this demonstration is to familiarize the students with the metric measurement of mass, the kilogram. Show the students the 1 kg weight. Then pass it around the room. I would let the students know that 1 kg is approximately equal to 2.2 lbs.

 

Standards of Mass (slotted mass set)

PIRA: 1A10.21

Description: The objective of this demonstration is to familiarize the students with the metric measurement of mass, the kilogram. Show the students the 1 kg weight. Then pass it around the room. I would let the students know that 1 kg is approximately equal to 2.2 lbs.

 

Meter stick

 

PIRA: 1A10.35

Description: The objective of this demonstration is to familiarize the students with the metric measurement of the length, the meter. Most, if not all, of the students have seen a meter stick so there would be no reason to pass it around. This would be an excellent time to discuss the standardization of units.

 

Time — The Pendulum

PIRA: 1A10.43

Description: The objective of this demonstration is to familiarize the students with the metric unit of time, the second. Use the pendulum to demonstrate how a unit of time was established. The string would be1m in length so that the period would be 2 seconds, that way it would be one second over and one second back.

Liter Cube

PIRA: 1A10.50

Description: Wooden block– 10 cm. x 10 cm. x 10 cm. — ruled at 1 cm. intervals.

 

Coordinate System

PIRA: 1A30.10

Description: This demonstration is to show the students what is meant my vector components (ie. the x, y, and z components of a vector). The arrow representing the vector is placed in the x, y plane. The projector is turned on and the shadow of the figure is seen on the wall behind it. The shadow reveals the y component of the vector.

 

Rotating Vector (vector addition)

PIRA: 1A40.31

Description: Three vectors are cut from different color Plexiglas and set in a rotatable frame so that two vectors add head-to-tail, and the third vector represents the sum. The apparatus can be placed on the overhead projector so that the class can see that two vectors of equal magnitude do not always have the same sum.

 

The “Right Hand”

PIRA: 1A40.36

 

Radian Measure with the Bike Wheel

PIRA: 1A50.11

Description: The bike wheel can be used to demonstrate uniform circular motion. The tape on the wheel designates one radian. A cord can be used to relate the radian measure to the radius.

 

Parabolic Path {water stream}

PIRA: 1A50.12

Description: Water is shot in a parabolic path.

 

Powers of Ten {video}

PIRA: 1A60.10

Description: “Powers of Ten” is a 9 min. film covering scales from the universe to sub-atomic.

 

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Motion in One Dimension


Penny & Feather

PIRA: 1C20.10

Description: A feather and a penny are placed in the tube which is “capped” on both ends. When the tube is held vertically the penny will fall faster than the feather. The tube is fitted with a valve and can be evacuated using the vacuum pump. When the tube is evacuated, the penny and feather will fall at the same rate.

 

Inclined Air Track

PIRA: 1C20.30

Description: The track can be used to demonstrate various things. In conjunction with the motion sensor x(t), v(t), and a(t) can be shown.

 

Fan Cart

PIRA: 1C20.31

Description: This cart has a permanently attached fan. When it is turned on, the cart demonstrates constant acceleration.

 

Various Balls

PIRA: 1C20.40

Description: A number of different ball can be dropped to show constant acceleration.

 

Law of Falling Bodies {moon, Mech. Univ. video}

PIRA: 1C20.46

Description: Mechanical Universe video clip showing the simultaneous dropping of a hammer and feather on the moon. On USB.

 

 

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Motion in Two Dimensions


 

Plexiglas ring (cut and uncut) with a marble

PIRA: 1D10.45

Description: A Plexiglas ring has a segment cut out of it. When marbles are rolled along the inside of the ring, they are shown to exit the ring in a straight line, traveling tangentially to the ring. This is similar to the Ball on a String.

 

Ball on a String

PIRA: 1D50.10

Description: Tie a lightweight ball to a sting and twirl around in a vertical circle.

 

Bucket and Wineglass of Water

PIRA: 1D50.40

Description: A bucket partially filled with water can be swung in a vertical circle with a radius of arm’s length. If swung with the appropriate speed, the water will not spill. The bucket can also be attached to a rope and swung in a vertical circle. Practice before you try this one.

 

Simultaneous Fall

PIRA: 1D60.20

Description: The objective of this demonstration is to show that when an object has horizontal velocity, gravity is acting upon it in the same way that it acts upon a dropped object.
The top portion of the figure has a mechanical device that sends two balls in motion at the same time, one with no horizontal motion and one with horizontal motion.

The mechanical device is triggered and both balls begin their descent. These two balls will hit the aluminum sheet at the same time because they will still have the same vertical force acting upon them. The device projects one ball horizontally while simultaneously dropping a second ball vertically; both balls land at the same time illustrating that the horizontal motion of the one ball does not affect its vertical motion at all.

 

Monkey Hunter

PIRA: 1D60.30

Description: Illustrates that a projectile fired at some initial angle with respect to horizontal falls at the same rate as the monkey falling vertically, so that the “hunter” should always aim at the monkey to make a hit. A stuffed monkey is hung from an electromagnet powered by the Lab volt supply (15 VDC).

The magnet is turned off when the dart exits the barrel of the air gun. The dart and the monkey are in free fall simultaneously. If the dart is aimed directly at the monkey, the dart should strike the monkey as it falls. If the gun is pumped only a few times, the velocity of the dart will be small and the collision will occur near the floor. If the gun is pumped several times, the velocity of the dart is large and the collision will occur near the top of the descent.

The monkey can be suspended from a 2 meter pole set on top of the demonstration bench (~3 meters off floor). The monkey must be hung from the plunger which extends from the electromagnet. When the magnet is turned on, the plunger is drawn in and the monkey slips off. Once the projectile is launched, either it must be returned to the gun or the power supply must be shut off.

 

Pop-up Cart

PIRA: 1D60.32

Description: A cart is pushed along on a dynamics track and launches a ball vertically when it passes through a switch. The ball makes a parabolic path through the air and lands back in the cart.

 

Juggling Balls or Flaming Torches

PIRA: 1D60.61

 

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Relative Motion


 

Crossing the River (Digital)

PIRA: 1E10.10

Description: The relative motion of a boat on a river. The motion of the boat is added to the motion of the river current, and the sum of the vectors is viewed from an overhead camera. (Old Cinema Classics Video on USB)

 

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Newton’s First Law


 

Inertia Ball

PIRA: 1F20.10

Description: A mass is rigged with 2 eye screws at opposite points and suspended with a piece of string and an identical piece of string is hung from the bottom of the mass. Pulling on the lower string slowly breaks the upper string first. Jerking on the lower string breaks the lower string first. The inertia of the mass keeps it from moving quickly.

 

Tablecloth Pull

PIRA: 1F20.30

Description: A full table setting (table cloth, plate, flatware, candle, champagne bottle, saucer, and cup) can be set on the table cloth. With a little practice, the table cloth can be pulled from under the setting. There are no hems on the table cloth. It is best to pull slightly downward over the edge of the table as you pull out. The tablecloth is jerked away without disturbing the place setting illustrating the concept of inertia.

 

Pencil Drop

PIRA: 1F30.50

Description: A short pencil is placed on top of a narrow vertical hoop which is resting on the opening to a pop bottle. When the hoop is removed sufficiently fast, the pencil falls into the bottle.

 

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Newton’s Second Law


 

Smart Pulley, Cart, Masses and Dynamics Track

PIRA: 1G10.10

Description: Masses can be used to pull the cart via a string over the smart pulley. The velocity and acceleration can be displayed.

 

Block on Incline Plane

PIRA: 1G10.25

Description: Accelerate a block of wood across a table by a mass on a string over a pulley.

 

Force Sensor – mass (vertical)

PIRA: 1G10.36

 

Atwood’s Machine

PIRA: 1G10.40

Description: This Atwood machine is constructed with a large pulley supported form a 2-meter rod. With 1 kg mass hangers suspended form each side, the system stays in equilibrium. At least 50 g is necessary to accelerate the system. The moment of inertia of the pulley has not been measured.
The pulley weighs 2.835 kg.

 

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Statics of Rigid Bodies


 

Map of State

PIRA: 1J10.10

Description: The center of mass of a state of Washington map can be found by using an arrow shaped plum bob and drawing a couple of lines. Three different holes near the maps edge are capable of supporting the map so it will hang vertically. The three points on the map are Pullman, Cougar Island, and Cougar. Center of mass is near Blewett Pass. Hang the map on a nail (provided) with the arrow plum bob on top of the map.  Draw a line.  Repeat for one of the other holes in the map.  The center of mass is located at the intersection of the lines.

 

Leaning Tower of Pisa

PIRA: 1J11.10

Description: A model of a tower is made in two pieces. The bottom piece is stable. When the top piece is added, the center of mass is shifted outside the base of the tower and the tower tips.

 

Balancing Bird

PIRA: 1J11.12

 

Double Cone

PIRA: 1J11.50

Description: As a double cone moves up a set of inclined rails, its center of gravity lowers.

 

Duck on a Rope

PIRA: 1J30.11

Description: A mass hangs below the rope and the duck balances above the rope. No matter how hard you pull on the ends of the rope, you cannot bring the duck up to the level of the rope ends. Near the center of a segment of rope, sits a duck with a mass attached below the duck. No matter how hard you pull on the ends of the rope, the duck cannot be lifted to the level of the rope ends.

 

100 cm. Balance Beam

PIRA: 1J40.22

Description: A beam, pivoted through its center of mass, has support hooks distributed evenly along its length. If a mass of, say, 200 g is hung at the 5 mark on one side, it can be shown to balance with a mass of 500 g hung at the 2 mark on the opposite side. The beam is supported by a clamp and support rod.

 

Torque Beam

PIRA: 1J40.40

 

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Applications of Newton’s Laws


 

Tipping Block

PIRA: 1K10.10

Description: Pull with a force sensor at various angles on the edge of a block to see the least amount of force required to tip the block.

Slipping Ladder

PIRA: 1K10.20

Description: A model ladder is placed against a box and a weight is moved up one rung at a time. Eventually the center of mass is reached and the ladder begins to slip.

 

Break the Bolt

PIRA: 1K10.22

Description: Half-inch bolts can be broken in half, given enough torque.  A thick plate of aluminum has tapped holes through most of its depth but they do not go all the way through.  When a bolt is started down the hole, it gets to the bottom and will no longer turn.  A “breaker bar” socket handle with the appropriate socket along with a long metal tube slipped over the handle will easily break the bolt in half.

 

Returning Coffee Can

PIRA: 1K10.43

Description: The coffee can is loaded with a rubber band and a lead weight. When the can rolls forward, energy is stored in the twisted rubber band. This stored energy is then returned as the can rolls back.

 

Styrofoam Model

PIRA: 1K20.06

Description: Thin sheets of Styrofoam can be carved to a wedge using a razor blade. The shaved edge reveals a jagged uneven edge. If two such wedges are place on the overhead projector, there shadows display a model of magnified surfaces to help explain the phenomenon of friction.

 

Block on an Incline

PIRA: 1K20.12

Description: Used for various demonstrations. Usually it is used with a protractor to measure the incline at which the block begins to slide. {the point where it breaks static friction}

 

Rotating Table

PIRA: 1K20.13

Description: A block rests on a turntable and the string goes to a dynamometer. The table accelerates to the point that the block slides off the table.

 

Sandpaper Block on an Incline

PIRA: 1K20.14

Description: The massive block with different grit sand papers on the surfaces can be used to explain frictional forces. If used in combination with an inclined plane, the coefficient of static friction can be obtained. Bricks can be used in the same fashion.

Area and Weight Dependence of Friction (bricks)

PIRA: 1K20.15

Description: Bricks can be pulled along a surface using a force sensor to measure the force. Some force exists before the bricks begin to move. The bricks are tied together in such a way that the surface area can be doubled or the mass can be doubled and the surface area can be reduced.

 

Pull Block with Fish Line {earthquake demo}

PIRA: 1K20.31

Description: A long string is attached to a large number of rubber bands that are hooked together and attached to a block that rests on the ground. The string is then attached to a dowel on a drill. As the dowel spins, the string wraps around the dowel until the tension on the rubber bands is great enough to pull the block forward. As tension overcomes friction, the block jerks forward. This happens repeatedly.

 

Pull Stacked Blocks

PIRA: 1K20.32

Description: A block with a string attached is placed on top of another block. If the mass of the top block is great enough, it will pull the bottom block with it when the string is pulled.

 

Truck with Locked Wheels

PIRA: 1K20.40

Description: Truck on which the wheels lock, demonstrates the idea that if a set of wheels on a vehicle are locked, the front wheels are preferred.

 

Bed of Nails

PIRA: 1K30.10

Description: Dr. Fred Gittes lies on the “Bed of Nails” YouTube video.

 

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Gravity


 

Cavendish Balance

PIRA: 1L10.30

Description: Standard Cavendish experiment with lead balls and optical lever detection. (Not operational)

 

Energy Ball

PIRA: 1L20.05

Description: A tube has a cord passing through that is attached to a ball on one end and a mass on the other. While holding the tube vertically, the ball is swung in a circle fast enough so that the tension in the string supports the mass. The ball must be spun at a particular rate to balance the mass at the other end. This can simulate orbits.

 

Orbit Model (Orrery)

PIRA: 1L20.06

Description: Model displays the rotation of the moon about the earth and the earth about the sun. The model can also be used for discussions of eclipses.

 

Gravity Well

PIRA: 1L20.11

Description: The motion of an object “falling” into a gravity well can be displayed.

 

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Work & Energy


 

Pulley System

PIRA: 1M20.11

Description: Single and Double Pulley systems. Place a mass on a string over a pulley and hold a spring scale at the other side. Repeat with a mass hanging from a single pulley in a loop of string.

 

Bowling Ball / Simple Pendulum

PIRA: 1M40.10

Description: When work is done in pushing the bowling ball or pendulum to the side, gravitational potential energy is stored. When released, the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy via the work done by gravity. To show conservation of energy, the instructor can position the ball or pendulum in front of his face and then release it from rest. On the return swing, the instructor will not be hit since extra energy cannot be added to the system.

 

Impact Pendulum/ Newton’s Cradle

PIRA: 1M40.12

Description: Five large steel balls with bifilar suspension are arranged so that they hang just touching each other while at rest. When one ball is raised and allowed to swing toward the others then, after the collision, one ball will rise on the opposite side. If two balls are raised, then two balls exit.

Conservation of energy and momentum can be discussed.

 

Loop the Loop

PIRA: 1M40.20

Description: The objective of this demonstration is to show approximately the minimum height at which the ball can be dropped so that it will make it all of the way around the loop.

Demonstrate that if the ball is dropped from the position parallel to the top of the loop then when the ball gets to the top of the loop it does not have enough velocity to carry it around the loop and will just fall. Describe to the students that there must be enough velocity.

 

Roller Coaster

PIRA: 1M40.35

Description: This roller coaster can be used to talk about conservation of energy and loss of energy. On a short time scale, potential energy is converted to kinetic energy and vice versa. For a longer time, energy is obvious lost from the system to sound and friction, etc. The ball will eventually come to rest.

 

Ballistic Pendulum

PIRA: 1M40.40

 

Spring & Mass

PIRA: 1M40.62

Description: Demonstrates that the spring stretches when force is applied to the string.

 

Spring & Force Sensor

PIRA: 1M40.63

Description: Demonstrates that the spring stretches when force is applied to the string.

 

Bathroom scale & timer {run up steps, h=2.6 m}

PIRA: 1M50.30

Description: A student runs up the stairs of B16, having had their weight measured, and their run is timed. With this information, the work performed by the student can be determined.

 

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Linear Momentum & Collisions


 

Spring Apart Air Track Gliders

PIRA: 1N20.20

Description: Burn a string holding a compressed spring between two air gliders with different mass.

 

Floor Cart and Medicine Ball

PIRA: 1N21.10

Description: Two people on roller carts throw a medicine ball to each other.

 

Water Rocket

PIRA: 1N22.20

Description: A toy rocket with a pump can be filled with either air or water. The air in the rocket can be compressed with the pump. With only air, the change in momentum of the rocket is small since the mass of the air is small. With both air and water, the change in momentum of the rocket is large since the mass of the escaping water is large.

 

Basketball & Racquet Ball

PIRA: 1N30.10

Description: Two balls or many balls on bifilar suspension. The balls are placed on top of each other and then dropped to demonstrate the transfer of momentum.

 

Air Track Collisions

PIRA: 1N30.30

Description: This demonstrates the transfer of momentum using the air track and air track gliders shows all combinations of linear collisions. Elastic and inelastic collisions with equal and unequal mass gliders can be clearly exhibited on a near frictionless surface. Springs are attached to the gliders on one end and a small amount of clay on the other produce the elastic and inelastic conditions.

 

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Rotational Dynamics


 

Inertia Wands

PIRA: 1Q10.10

Description: Wands can be used to observe the motion of the object relative to its center of mass. One wand is weighted in the center, the other wand is weighted at each end.

 

Ring, Disc, and Sphere

PIRA: 1Q10.30

Description: A disk, a hoop, and a sphere will have different accelerations dependent on their moment of inertia as they roll without slipping down an incline. Roll them down an inclined plane to see which one reaches bottom first. The students can be asked to predict which object will reach the bottom of the incline first. The disk and hoop are designed to have the same mass and radius to show that the acceleration is independent of these two quantities.

 

Angular Acceleration Apparatus

PIRA: 1Q20.20

Description: The apparatus consists of a pulley, a rod centered on the pulley, and two masses which slide along the rod. The masses can be clamped at any position on opposite sides of the center of the rod. If the masses are clamped at the end of the rod, the moment of inertia of the system is large and, when a constant torque is applied, the angular acceleration will be small. If the masses are clamped near the center of the rod, the moment of inertia of the system is small and, when a constant torque is applied, the angular acceleration will be large. The constant torque is provided by a rope wrapped around the pulley and attached to an unsupported 100 g mass. The system is supported by a support rod and clamp.

 

Falling Wine Glass on a String

PIRA: 1Q20.28

Description: A string is tied to the base of a wine glass and has a small mass on the other end. The string is then placed over a rod with the glass hanging down one side and the small mass is held horizontally on the other. When the mass is dropped, the string wraps around the rod and the glass does not hit the floor.

 

Falling Meter Stick

PIRA: 1Q20.56

Description: Blocks rest on a meter stick held up horizontally from a pivot point. When the meter stick is allowed to fall from the pivot point, the blocks closest to the pivot point remain closest to the meter stick.

 

Weights Dropped on Rotating Stool

PIRA: 1Q30.31

Description: Demonstrates the conservation of angular momentum. The stool is first spun, and then weights are dropped on top of the stool. When the weight is added, the stool spins more slowly.

 

Rotating Stool with Weights

PIRA: 1Q40.10

Description: Conservation of angular momentum can be demonstrated with a low friction bar stool. The instructor or a student when spinning on the bar stool has a vertically oriented angular momentum vector. The person on the stool can change their moment of inertia by extending or pulling in their arms and legs (extra weights can be used). By changing their moment of inertia in the absence of external torques, their angular velocity will change oppositely. The bike wheel can also be used to show angular momentum conservation. The change is angular velocity of the person on the stool will be greatest when the wheel axis is vertical and the axis is then rotated 180 degrees.

 

Governor

PIRA: 1Q40.23

Description: This shows the increase in angular speed when the weights are moved toward the axis of rotation. The device will rotate at about the same speed when allowed to spin freely due to the weights.

 

Rotating Stool with Bike Wheel

PIRA: 1Q40.30

Description: This demonstrates rotational inertia and torque. When the stool is stationary, the bike wheel is spun vertically and moved to a horizontal position. As the wheel changes from vertical to horizontal, the stool turns as well.

 

Bike Wheel Gyro

PIRA: 1Q50.20

Description: A bike wheel can be hung from its axle by a cable. When the wheel is spinning, the axle will stay horizontal and the wheel will precess.

 

MITAC Gyro

PIRA: 1Q50.30

Description: If the gyroscope is placed on a cart which can be moved about, it can be shown that the gyro will always point in one direction. A pennant can represent the compass reference used onboard ships. Precession can be shown by placing a weight on one end of the axis arrow.

 

Air Gyro

PIRA: 1Q50.45

Description: A large steel ball with a rod running through it can have weight added to the rod. It will then behave similar to the MITAC Gyro.

 

Tippe Top

PIRA: 1Q60.30

Description: A toy top when spun inverts itself so that it is top heavy.

 

Energy Ball

PIRA: 1Q60.52

Description: A tube has a cord passing through that is attached to a ball on one end and a mass on the other. While holding the tube vertically, the ball is swung in a circle fast enough so that the tension in the string supports the mass.

Break the Bolt

PIRA: 1Q70.10

Description: Half-inch bolts can be broken in half, given enough torque.  A thick plate of aluminum has tapped holes through most of its depth but they do not go all the way through.  When a bolt is started down the hole, it gets to the bottom and will no longer turn.  A “breaker bar” socket handle with the appropriate socket along with a long metal tube slipped over the handle will easily break the bolt in half.

 

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Properties of Matter


 

Stretch Springs

PIRA: 1R10.10

Description: This demonstration is designed to introduce Hooke’s law and show how to calculate the spring constant. A mass is hung from a string. The spring’s length is measured. It is then stretched out and remeasured. The formula for the force of the spring is introduced, FSpring = -kx. The force being exerted on the string is the weight of the object = mg. So, mg = -kx. K can be found by dividing mg by the amount that the spring was stretched.

 

Foam Stress

PIRA: 1R30.20

Description: Push on the top of a large foam block to show shear.

 

Bouncing Balls

PIRA: 1R40.10

Description: Different composition balls are dropped down a glass tube to measure their rebound. The balls impact a steel anvil and the height to which they rebound is marked with rubber bands on the glass tube. The coefficient of restitution is determined.

 

Live and Dead Balls

PIRA: 1R40.30

Description: Similar looking balls are dropped onto an anvil. One will bounce and the other will not bounce at all.

 

Various Crystal Model

PIRA: 1R50.20

Description: Ball and stick lattice models of NaCl, sodium carbonate, graphite and diamond.

 

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Recent Physics Demonstration Shows

  1. Odyssey Program – 5th thru 8th, Spokane, WA 5-23-2019
  2. Odyssey Program – 5th thru 8th, Spokane, WA  5-22-2019
  3. West Valley City School, 8th Grade, Spokane,WA  5-21-2019
  4. West Valley City School, 7th Grade, Spokane,WA  5-20-2019
  5. Bemiss Elementary, 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 5-17-2019
  6. Grangeville Middle School, 8th grade, Grangeville, ID,  5-15-2019
  7. Royal Middle School, 7th grade, Royal City, WA, 5-14-2019
  8. Garrison Middle School, 8th grade, Walla Walla, WA, 5-10-2019
  9. Evergreen Middle School, 6th, 7th & 8th Grade, Spokane Valley, WA 5-9-2019
  10. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 5-8-2019
  11. Spokane Public Montessori School, 6th Grade, Spokane, WA 4-26-2019
  12. Cheney Middle School, 7th & 8th Grade, Cheney, WA 4-24-2019
  13. Sierra Vista Middle School, group 2, 7th Grade, Sunnyside, WA 4-22-2019
  14. Sierra Vista Middle School, group 1, 7th Grade, Sunnyside, WA 4-22-2019
  15. Spokane Public Montessori School, 6th Grade, Spokane, WA 4-19-2019
  16. Kiona-Benton City High School, 9-11 Grade STEM, Benton City, WA 4-12-2019
  17. Lakeside Middle School, Plummer-Worley, ID, 4-12-2019
  18. Spokane Public Montessori School, 6th Grade, Spokane, WA 4-10-2019
  19. Children’s House Montessori, 6th Grade, Lewiston, ID  4-5-2019
  20. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 1-30-2019
  21. Grandview Middle School, AVID 8th Grade, Grandview, WA 12-20-2018
  22. Grandview Middle School, AVID 7th Grade, Grandview, WA 12-19-2018
  23. Wahluke Junior High School, 8th Grade, Mattawa, WA 12-5-2018
  24. Stevens Elementary, 6th Grade, Spokane, WA  11-30-2018
  25. West Plains Girl Scouts, 5th Grade, Spokane, WA  11-19-2018
  26. Shaw Middle School MESA, Spokane, WA  11-5-2018
  27. Moscow Charter Middle School, 7th Grade, Moscow, ID 10-31-2018
  28. Garry Middle School MESA, Spokane, WA  10-29-2018
  29. Salk Middle School MESA, Spokane, WA  10-22-2018
  30. Glover Middle School MESA, Spokane, WA  10-15-2018
  31. Cornerstone Christian School, 7th Grade, Lewiston, ID 10-15-2018
  32. Sacajawea Middle School MESA – Spokane, WA,10-8-2018
  33. Shaw Middle School GEAR UP, Spokane, WA 10-3-2018
  34. Jr.H and HS students from Okinawa, Japan – 7-30-2018
  35. YMCA of the Palouse, “Across the Universe” week, 7-24-2018
  36. Spokane tribe leadership camp, H.S. students, 7-20-2018 PM
  37. Spokane tribe leadership camp, H.S. students, 7-20-2018 AM
  38. Jr.H and HS students from Okinawa, Japan – 7-18-2018
  39. NY’EHE Summer Camp, 9th and 10th grade, 6-19-2018
  40. Park Middle School Gear Up, 8th grade, Kennewick, WA, 6-5-2018
  41. STEM Middle School Students, Warm Springs, Oregon,  6-4-2018
  42. University Elementary School, 5th grade, Spokane Valley, WA,  6-4-2018
  43. Glover Middle School (AVID) – 8th grade, Spokane, WA  5-31-2018
  44. Cheney Middle School, 8th grade, Cheney, WA, 5-30-2018
  45. Juliaetta Elementary School, 4th & 5th grades, Juliaetta, ID, 5-24-2018
  46. Royal Middle School, 7th grade, Royal City, WA, 5-22-2018
  47. Grangeville Middle School, 8th grade, Grangeville, ID,  5-21-2018
  48. Prairie View Elementary School, 4th grade, Spokane, WA, 5-18-2018
  49. Prairie View Elementary School, 4th grade, Spokane, WA, 5-17-2018
  50. Bellevue Christian School, 8th grade, Bellevue, WA, 5-9-2018
  51. McLoughlin Middle School, 7th grade, Pasco, WA,  5-7-2018
  52. Sierra Vista Middle School, 7th grade, Sunnyside, WA, 4-18-2018
  53. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 4-4-2018
  54. Physics 150, 4-2-2018
  55. Salk Middle School, 8th grade, Spokane, WA, 3-29-2018
  56. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 1-24-2018
  57. MESA – Spokane (Sacajawea Middle School), 10-23-2017
  58. MESA – Spokane (Glover Middle School), 10-16-2017
  59. MESA – Spokane (Garry Middle School), 10-2-2017
  60. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 9-21-2017
  61. Families Together for People with Disabilities in Moscow, 8-10-2017
  62. GearUp, 8-8-2017
  63. Spokane Public Schools Express Program, 8-1-2017
  64. Boise State University’s TRIO Upward Bound, 7-6-2017
  65. Dare to Dream, CAMP, 6-28-2017
  66. Dare to Dream, CAMP, 6-21-2017
  67. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 6-19-2017
  68. McMurray Middle School (AVID) – 8th grade, Vashon Island, WA  6-16-2017
  69. Harrison Middle School – 6th grade, Sunnyside, WA  6-13-2017
  70. Glover Middle School (AVID) – 8th grade, Spokane, WA  6-1-2017
  71. McFarland  Middle School (AVID), 7th Grade, Othello, WA  5-30-2017
  72. Odyssey Program – 5th thru 8th, 5-25-2017
  73. Odyssey Program – 5th thru 8th, 5-24-2017
  74. Lutacaga Elementary School, 5th Grade, Othello, WA  5-19-2017
  75. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 5-15-2017
  76. Julietta Elementary – 5th Grade, Julietta, ID,  5-8-2017
  77. Bemiss Elementary,  6th Grade – Spokane, WA 4-24-2017
  78. Garrison Middle School (AVID), 8th Grade, Walla Walla, WA  4-21-2016
  79. Adams Elementary, 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 4-17-2017
  80. Montessori students, 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 4-14-2017
  81. Montessori students, 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 4-12-2017
  82. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 4-7-2017
  83. College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), 3-31-2017
  84. Longfellow Elementary, 6th grade, 3-20-2017
  85. Chase Middle School, 7th and 8th Grades, 3-6-2017
  86. Colville Middle School, 7-8 Grades, 2-24-2017 (Ethan Crowell)
  87. Native American Outreach, 9th grade, 2-13-2017
  88. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 1-27-2017
  89. Glover Middle School, 8th grade MESA, 11-7-2016
  90. Salk Middle School, 8th grade MESA, 11-4-2016
  91. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 10-27-2016
  92. Cornerstone, 7th Grade, 10-7-2016
  93. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 9-23-2016
  94. 4-H Teen Conference –  7-11-2016
  95. CAMP (Dare to Dream Academy) –  6-23-2016
  96. GearUp & CAMP (Dare to Dream Academy) –  6-22-2016
  97. CAMP (Dare to Dream Academy) –  6-15-2016
  98. Cougar Kids Camp,  6-14-2016
  99. Madison Elementary , 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 6-13-2016
  100. Glover Middle School (AVID), 8th Grade, Spokane, WA  6-10-2016
  101. Ellen Ochoa Middle School,  7th Grade, Pasco, WA  6-8-2016
  102. Asotin Middle School, 7th Grade, Asotin, WA  6-7-2016
  103. Bryant/TEC, 6th Grade, Spokane, WA  6-3-2016
  104. Jennings Elementary School, 6th Grade, Colfax, WA  6-2-2016
  105. Lutacaga Elementary School, 5th Grade, Othello, WA  5-26-2016
  106. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 5-26-2016
  107. Clarkston Heights Elementary, 5th Grade, Clarkston, WA  5-23-2016
  108. Oroville Jr. High – 7th Grade, Oroville, WA, 5-19-2016
  109. Julietta Elementary – 6th Grade, Julietta, ID,  5-18-2016
  110. Paschal Sherman Indian School – 8th Grade, Omak, WA  5-10-2016
  111. Grant Elementary – 6th Grade, Spokane, WA 4-29-2016
  112. Junior Preview – 4-23-2016
  113. Whitman Elementary, 6th grade – Lewiston,ID,  4-22-2016
  114. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 4-18-2016
  115. Montessori students, 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 4-15-2016
  116. Audubon Elementary , 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 4-15-2016
  117. Montessori students, 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 4-12-2016
  118. Finch Elementary, 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 4-11-2016
  119. Browne Elementary, 6th Grade – Spokane, WA 3-25-2016
  120. Chief Moses Middle School, 8th Grade, Moses Lake, WA  3-11-2016
  121. College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), 2-26-2016
  122. Granger Middle School, 7th Grade, Granger, WA  2-26-2016
  123. Colville Middle School, 6-8 Grades, Colville, WA 2-24-2016
  124. High School Equivalency Program, (WSU-HEP), 2-12-2016
  125. Cheney Middle School (MESA) Cheney, WA 11-9-2015
  126. Shaw Middle School (MESA) Spokane, WA  11-6-2015
  127. Westwood Middle School (MESA) Cheney, WA 11-2-2015
  128. Glover Middle School (MESA) – Spokane, WA 10-30-2015
  129. Junior high and high school aged students from Okinawa, Japan – 7-21-2015
  130. Cougar Kids Camp – 7-14-2015
  131. 4-H Teen Conference –  6-29-2015
  132. CAMP (Dare to Dream Academy) –  6-24-2015
  133. Upward Bound –  6-18-2015
  134. CAMP (Dare to Dream Academy) –  6-17-2015
  135. Idaho Gear Up –  6-15-2015
  136. Grant Elementary – 6th Grade, 6-9-2015
  137. Connell – 6th grade, 6-3-2015
  138. Basin City – 6th grade, 6-2-2015
  139. Foothills Middle School – 7th grade, 6-1-2015
  140. Stevens Middle School – 6th Grade, 5-29-2015
  141. Lutacaga – 5th grade, 5-28-2015
  142. Odyssey Program – 5th thru 8th, 5-22-2015
  143. Odyssey Program – 5th thru 8th, 5-21-2015
  144. Odyssey Program – 5th thru 8th, 5-20-2015
  145. Parkway Elementary – 5th grade, 5-19-2015
  146. Bellevue Christian – 8th grade, 5-12-2015
  147. Garrison Middle School – 7th & 8th grade, 5-8-2015
  148. Bemiss – 6th Grade,  5-4-2015
  149. Whitman – 6th Grade, 5-1-2015
  150. Audubon – 6th Grade, 4-27-2015
  151. Spokane Public Montessori – 6th grade,  4-24-2015
  152. Logan – 6th Grade, 4-22-2015
  153. Whitman Elementary, Lewiston – 6th grade, 4-21-2015
  154. Spokane Public Montessori at Havermale – 6th grade, 4-16-2015
  155. Highland Elementary– 5th grade, 4-10-2015
  156. Sacajawea – 8th grade, 3-27-2015
  157. Stevens Middle School – 7th Grade, 3-23-2015